Ladder Safety Training

Ladder Safety Training Online

The use of ladders may be unavoidable in your business or industry. Step ladders, portable ladders, extension ladders, and even fixed ladders all carry a risk of injury. Doing your ladder safety training online can teach you and your employees how to safely use ladders, identify a defective ladder, and manage different ladder types.

  • Pricing

  • 1-10 units: $29.95
  • 11-25 units: $24.95
  • 26-50 units:$19.95
  • 51-100 units: $15.95
  • 101-500 units: $12.95
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This high quality, extensive ladder safety training will guide you and your employees through an introduction to ladder safety as well as a description of potential risks and hazards that ladders may cause. This course is designed to be applicable to different industries and businesses, so ladders like trestle ladders, wooden ladders, access ladders, and a variety of other ladder types and styles are discussed and evaluated. Here is a brief course description:

  • Hazard Identification and Control
  • Ladder Selection
  • Inspection Procedures
  • Safe Ladder Setup and Use
  • Proper Care, Transportation, and Storage

Who Needs Ladder Safety Training?

Do your employees ever have to use ladders, even just short step ladders, throughout the course of their work day? If so, they can benefit from ladder safety training. Our online learning software makes it easy to learn how to safely use ladders. From a fire safety ladder to a large and bulky extension ladder, your employees will be protected

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Hazard Identification and Control

  • Potential Hazards
  • Common Causes of Accidents

Ladder Selection

  • Ladder selection process
  • Ladder grades
  • Types of ladders

Inspection Procedures

  • Inspection Items
  • Ladder markings

Safe Ladder Setup and Use

  • Personal factors affecting user
  • Personal Protection Equipment
  • High traffic areas and environmental conditions
  • Proper setup
  • Climbing and descending

Proper Care, Transportation and Storage

  • Proper care
  • Transporting ladders
  • Storage
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All our online training meets provincial and federal regulations. For specific outlines please select your province below.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
© 1995 – 2010 Government of Alberta

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE 2009
Adoption of standards 3 The following are adopted for the purposes of this Code: ANSI Standards
A14.1-2007, American National Standard for Ladders — Wood — Safety Requirements A14.2-2007, American National Standard for Ladders — Portable Metal — Safety Requirements A14.5-2007, American National Standard for Ladders — Portable Reinforced Plastic — Safety Requirements
CSA Standards CAN3-Z11-M81 (R2005), Portable Ladders
PIP Standard STF05501 (February 2002), Fixed Ladders and Cages, published by the Construction Industry Institute

Definitions 1 In this Code,

“fixed ladder” means a ladder that is permanently fixed to a supporting structure in a vertical position or at an angle of not more than 15 degrees from vertical and that does not lean back;

“ladderjack scaffold” means a scaffold erected by attaching a bracket to a ladder to support the scaffold planks;

“portable ladder” means any ladder that is not a fixed ladder;

Part 8 Entrances, Walkways, Stairways and Ladders

Entrances, Walkways, Stairways

Ladders — General Restriction on use 124 An employer must ensure that workers do not use a ladder to enter or leave an elevated or sub-level work area if the area has another safe and recognizable way to enter or leave it. Prohibition on single rail 125 A person must not make a ladder by fastening cleats across a single rail or post.

Prohibition on painting 126(1) Subject to subsection (2), a person must not paint a wooden ladder. 126(2) A wooden ladder may be preserved with a transparent protective coating.

Use near energized electrical equipment 127 An employer must ensure that a ladder used during the servicing of energized or potentially energized electrical equipment is made of nonconductive material.

Ladders on extending booms 128(1) An employer must ensure that

(a) if a ladder is a permanent part of an extending boom on powered mobile equipment, no worker is on the ladder during the articulation, extension or retraction of the boom, and

(b) if outriggers are incorporated in the equipment to provide stability, no worker climbs the ladder until the outriggers are deployed. 128(2) Subsection (1)(a) does not apply to professional fire fighters working on fire fighting equipment.

Crawl Board or Roof Ladder

Safe use 129 An employer must ensure that a crawl board or roof ladder used for roof work

(a) is securely fastened by hooking the board or ladder over the ridge of the roof or by another equally effective means, and
(b) is not supported by an eaves trough.

Fixed Ladders Design criteria 130(1) An employer must ensure that a fixed ladder installed on or after April 30, 2004 meets the requirements of PIP Standard STF05501 (February 2002), Fixed Ladders and Cages, published by the Construction Industry Institute. 130(2) Despite the standards referenced in PIP Standard STF05501, an employer may

(a) use applicable Canadian material and process standards if the employer ensures that the fixed ladder is designed and installed in accordance with established engineering principles, and
(b) allow the inside diameter of a cage hoop to be as great as 760 millimetres.

130(3) If a fixed ladder is made of a material other than steel, the employer must ensure that the design is certified by a professional engineer as being as strong as or stronger than that required by PIP Standard STF05501.

130(4) The employer must ensure that a self-closing double bar safety gate, or equally effective barrier, is provided at ladderway floor openings and platforms of fixed ladders installed on or after April 30, 2004.

130(5) Subsection (4) does not apply at landings.

130(6) Section 327 applies to an access ladder attached to a scaffold. Fixed ladders in manholes 131 Despite section 130, fixed ladders used in pre-cast reinforced concrete manhole sections installed on or after July1, 2009 must meet the requirements of ASTM Standard C478-07, Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Manhole Sections.

Rest platform exemption 132 If each worker working on a drilling rig or service rig on a fixed ladder is equipped with and wears a climb assist device that complies with the manufacturer’s specifications or specifications certified by a professional engineer, an employer is not required to
(a) provide the ladder with rest platforms, or
(b) have the side rails extend not less than 1050 millimetres above the point at which the workers get on or off.

Portable Ladders Prohibition

133(1) A worker must not perform work from either of the top two rungs, steps or cleats of a portable ladder unless the manufacturer’s specifications allow the worker to do so.

133(2) Despite subsection (1), a worker may work from either of the top two rungs, steps or treads of a stepladder,
(a) if the stepladder has a railed platform at the top, or
(b) if the manufacturer’s specifications for the stepladder permit it. Constructed portable ladder

134(1) An employer must ensure that a constructed portable ladder
(a) is constructed of lumber that is free of loose knots or knot holes,
(b) with a length of 5 metres or less has side rails constructed of lumber measuring not less than 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres,
(c) more than 5 metres long has side rails constructed of lumber measuring not less than 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres,
(d) has side rails that are not notched, dapped, tapered or spliced,
(e) has side rails at least 500 millimetres apart at the bottom, and
(f) has rungs that are
(i) constructed of lumber measuring not less than 21 millimetres by 89 millimetres,
(ii) held by filler blocks or secured by a single continuous wire, and

(iii) uniformly spaced at a centre to centre distance of 250 millimetres to 300 millimetres. 134(2) An employer must ensure that a two-way constructed portable ladder that is wide enough to permit traffic in both directions at the same time,

(a) has a centre structural rail along the length of the ladder,
(b) is at least one metre wide, and
(c) is constructed of materials that are substantial enough in size to accommodate the maximum intended load.
Manufactured portable ladder 135 An employer must ensure that a portable ladder manufactured on or after July1, 2009 meets the requirements of
(a) CSA Standard CAN3-Z11-M81 (R2005), Portable Ladders,
(b) ANSI Standard A14.1-2007, American National Standard for Ladders — Wood — Safety Requirements,
(c) ANSI Standard A14.2-2007, American National Standard for Ladders — Portable Metal — Safety Requirements, or
(d) ANSI Standard A14.5-2007, American National Standard for Ladders — Portable Reinforced Plastic — Safety Requirements.

Securing and positioning 136 A worker must ensure that

(a) a portable ladder is secured against movement and placed on a base that is stable,
(b) the base of an inclined portable ladder is no further from the base of the wall or structure than one-quarter of the distance between the base of the ladder and the place where the ladder contacts the wall, and
(c) the side rails of a portable ladder extend at least 1 metre above a platform, landing or parapet if the ladder is used as a means of access to the platform, landing or parapet.

Fall protection

137(1) An employer must ensure that a worker working from a portable ladder from which the worker may fall 3 metres or more uses a personal fall arrest system.

137(2) Subsection (1) does not apply while the worker is moving up or down the portable ladder.

137(3) Despite subsection (1), if it is not reasonably practical to use a personal fall arrest system, a worker may work from a portable ladder without fall protection if
(a) the work is a light duty task of short duration at each location,
(b) the worker’s centre of balance is at the centre of the ladder at all times even with an arm extended beyond the side rails of the ladder, and
(c) the worker maintains three-point contact whenever the worker extends an arm beyond a side rail.

Fixed ladders and climbable structures 154(1) An employer must ensure that if a worker is working from or on a fixed ladder or climbable structure at a height of 3 metres or more and is not protected by a guardrail, continuous protection from falling is provided by
(a) equipping the fixed ladder or climbable structure with an integral fall protection system that meets the requirements of
(i) CSA Standard Z259.2.1-98 (R2004), Fall Arresters, Vertical Lifelines, and Rails, or
(ii) ANSI/ASSE Standard Z359.1-2007, Safety requirements for personal fall arrest systems, subsystems and components, or
(b) an alternate fall protection system. 154(2) Subsection (1) applies to fixed ladders and climbable structures constructed and installed after July1, 2009.

Part 23

Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms

Vertical ladder on scaffold 327(1) An employer must ensure that a vertical ladder that gives access to a working level of a scaffold is used by a worker only to move up or down between levels of the scaffold. 327(2) Workers moving between levels of a scaffold on a vertical ladder
(a) must not extend a part of their body, other than an arm, beyond the side rails of the ladder, and
(b) must maintain a three-point stance on the ladder at all times. 327(3) The employer must ensure that a ladder attached to a scaffold and providing access to a working level of a scaffold
(a) is securely fastened to the scaffold,
(b) does not lean away from the scaffold,
(c) extends at least 1 metre above the uppermost working level of the scaffold,
(d) has rungs that are uniformly spaced at a centre-to-centre distance of 250 millimetres to 305 millimetres,
(e) has a maximum unbroken length of 9.1 metres measured from the ground or between working levels, and
(f) is equipped with a ladder cage that begins within 2.4 metres of the ground or working level if the ladder is more than 6.1 metres in height.

327(4) The employer must ensure that the ladder cage required by subsection (3)(f) is
(a) circular with an inside diameter that measures no more than 760 millimetres, or
(b) square with inside dimensions that measure no more than 760 millimetres by 760 millimetres. 327(5) Despite subsections (3)(e) and (3)(f), the ladder may have a maximum unbroken length of more than 9.1 metres and does not require a ladder cage if a fall protection system complying with Part 9 is used.

Working from a ladder

328(1) An employer must ensure that no worker performs work from a ladder that is used to give access to the working levels of a scaffold.

328(2) A worker must not perform work from a ladder that is used to give access to the working levels of a scaffold.
Ladderjack scaffolds 336(1) An employer must ensure that ladders used for ladderjack scaffolds are
(a) erected in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications, or
(b) if there are no manufacturer’s specifications, are not more than 3 metres apart. 336(2) An employer must ensure that brackets in a ladderjack scaffold are designed to
(a) be supported by the side rails of the ladder, or
(b) have at least 90 millimetres of width resting on the ladder rung. 336(3) An employer must ensure that a ladderjack scaffold is not more than 5 metres high. 336(4) An employer must ensure that there are not more than two workers at a time on a ladderjack scaffold. 336(5) Despite sections 329 and 330, an employer may use a single commercially manufactured extendable painter’s plank or a commercially manufactured aluminum or laminated plank on a ladderjack scaffold.

347(5) An employer must ensure that a telescopic aerial device, aerial ladder, articulating aerial device, vertical tower, material-lifting aerial device or a combination of any of them, when mounted on a motor vehicle, whether operated manually or using power, meets the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/CSA-C225-00 (R2005), Vehicle-Mounted Aerial Devices.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
© 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Copyright Workers’ Compensation Board of British Columbia Richmond, B.C., Canada. All rights reserved.
WORKERS COMPENSATION (OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY) AMENDMENT ACT, 1998

Part 4 — General Conditions

Buildings, Structures and Equipment

Walkways

4.61 Elevated walkways must be at least 50 cm (20 in) wide, and safe access to walkways must be provided by means of stairs, ramps or fixed ladders.

Part 13 Ladders, Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms

Division 2 – Ladders

13.2 Standards

(1) A ladder, window cleaner’s belt or work platform must meet and be used in accordance with
(a) the applicable CSA or ANSI standard in effect when the equipment or structure was manufactured, except as otherwise determined by the Board,
(b) another standard acceptable to the Board, or
(c) if there is no applicable standard under paragraphs (a) or (b), the requirements of a professional engineer.

(2) In designing and installing a work platform, appropriate safety factors and minimum rated loads must be used in the materials and method of installation, in accordance with

(a) WCB Standard WPL 1, Design, Construction and Use of Wood Frame Scaffolds, 2004,
(b) WCB Standard WPL 2, Design, Construction and Use of Crane Supported Work Platforms, 2004,
(c) WCB Standard WPL 3, Safety Factor and Minimum Breaking Strength for Suspended Work Platforms and Associated Components, 2004, and
(d) WCB Standard LDR 1, Job Built Ladders, 2004. [Enacted by B.C. Reg. 422/2004, effective January 1, 2005.]

13.3 Inspections

A ladder, window cleaner’s belt, work platform and associated components must be inspected before use on each shift, and after any modification, and any condition that might endanger workers must be remedied before the equipment is used. [Enacted by B.C. Reg. 422/2004, effective January 1, 2005.]

13.4 Manufactured ladders

A manufactured portable ladder must be marked for the grade of material used to construct the ladder and the use for which the ladder is constructed. [Enacted by B.C. Reg. 422/2004, effective January 1, 2005.] 13.5 Position and stability
A ladder must
(a) be placed on a firm and level base,
(b) be positioned so that the horizontal distance from the base to vertical plane of support is approximately ¼ of the ladder length,
(c) have sufficient length to project approximately 1 m (3 ft) above the upper landing to which it provides access, and
(d) if necessary, be secured to ensure stability during use. [Enacted by B.C. Reg. 422/2004, effective January 1, 2005.]

13.6 Use restrictions
(1) If work cannot be done from a ladder without hazard to a worker, a work platform must be provided.
(2) A worker must not carry up or down a ladder, heavy or bulky objects or any other objects which may make ascent or descent unsafe. [Enacted by B.C. Reg. 422/2004, effective January 1, 2005.]

Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for ladders can be found at:
CAN/CSA-Z11-M81 (R2005)-Portable Ladders (Developing New Edition)

Part 14 — Cranes and Hoists

Definitions

14.1 In this Part: “sign truck” means a truck that is
(a) capable of acting as a crane and as an aerial ladder, and
(b) used as a work platform or used for hoisting loads or accessing a work location;

Mobile Cranes, Boom Trucks and and Sign Trucks Sign trucks

14.73 (1) A sign truck must be inspected, maintained and operated according to the requirements for mobile cranes, and for elevating work platforms in Part 13 (Ladders, Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms).

(43) When a sign truck is being used, the load rating charts for the configuration in use must be available at the workplace.
Tower Cranes Access

14.88 (1) A tower crane must have a fixed ladder installed in or on the mast to provide access to the jib and crown of the crane.
(2) The ladder under subsection (1) must meet the following requirements:
(a) the ladder must be able to support two 1.1 kN (250 lbs.) point loads between any two consecutive points where the ladder is attached to the crane;
(b) there must be a minimum horizontal distance of 15 cm (6 in.) between the rungs and the object to which the ladder is attached;
(c) landing platforms must be provided at least every 9 m (30 ft.) on the ladder;
(d) each section of the ladder must be offset horizontally from adjacent sections or the landing platforms must have trap doors;
(e) if a section of the ladder has a climb exceeding 6 m (20 ft.) in length, that section of ladder must have a ladder safety cage 68 cm to 76 cm (27 in. to 30 in.) in diameter or a ladder safety device must be used.

Part 16 — Mobile Equipment

General Requirements

Application
16.2 This Part applies to mobile equipment used by or around workers. Standards
16.7 The design, fabrication, use, inspection and maintenance of mobile equipment must meet the requirements of the following applicable standard:
(h) Vehicles with Mounted Aerial Devices (firefighting equipment): NFPA 1904, Aerial Ladder and Elevating Platform Fire Apparatus, 1991 Edition;
Part 19 — Electrical Safety Working on Low Voltage Electrical Equipment Disconnection and lockout
19.10 (1) Low voltage electrical equipment must be completely disconnected and locked out as required by this Regulation before starting work on it.
(2) Except as specified in subsection (3), if it is not practicable to completely disconnect low voltage electrical equipment, work must be performed by qualified and authorized workers and in accordance with written safe work procedures which
(a) require the use of appropriate electrical protective equipment, including rubber gloves and cover up, and other necessary live line tools,
(b) provide that, if practicable, uncontrolled liquid is not permitted close to any worker working on the equipment, and
(c) if applicable, control the use of metal ladders, wooden ladders with wire reinforced side rails, metal scaffolds or metal work platforms.

Working on High Voltage Electrical Equipment

Isolation and lockout
19.16 (1) High voltage electrical equipment must, if practicable, be completely isolated, grounded, and locked out as required by this Regulation before starting work on it.
(2) If it is not practicable to completely isolate high voltage electrical equipment,
(a) written safe work procedures acceptable to the Board must be followed,
(b) two or more qualified and authorized persons must be present while the work is being done, unless the procedures being followed under paragraph (a) specifically permit the work to be done by one person,
(c) appropriate electrical protective equipment, including rubber blankets, hoses, hoods, gloves and live line tools must be selected, used, stored, tested, and maintained in accordance with a standard acceptable to the Board, and
(d) the use of metal ladders, wire reinforced side rail wooden ladders, metal scaffolds or metal work platforms must be in accordance with the procedures established under paragraph (a).

Part 20 — Construction, Excavation and Demolition

Safe Work Areas and Safe Access Safe access

20.4 (1) Where practicable, suitable ladders, work platforms and scaffolds meeting the requirements of Part 13 (Ladders, Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms) must be provided for and used by a worker for activities requiring positioning at elevations above a floor or grade.

(2) There must be suitable access for the safe delivery of equipment and materials to locations in the workplace where they will be used.
[en. B.C. Reg. 420/2004, s. 7; am. B.C. Reg. 243/2006, s. 11.] Roof Work Crawl boards and ladders

20.74 (1) Crawl boards or ladders used for roof work must be securely fastened over the ridge of the roof, or must be otherwise effectively anchored.
(2) The use of an eavestrough to support a crawl board or ladder on a roof is prohibited.
Marine Construction, Pile Driving and Dredging Suspended work platforms
20.102 (1) Suspended work platforms such as gilley boards, small boats and buckets used to support workers must meet the requirements for suspended work platforms in Part 13 (Ladders, Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms).

Part 22 — Underground Workings Raises General requirement

22.106 (1) The employer must ensure that
(a) where a timber work platform is used, the main platform bearers are securely pinned to prevent them from dislodging,
(b) ladderways and travelways used for foot traffic are maintained in good repair and clean condition,
(c) a raise in excess of 50º measured from horizontal and 15 m (50 ft) in length has separate compartments for the passage of workers and blasted material during the driving operation and, where timber is used, that it is installed to within 5 m (16 ft) of the face, and
(d) if an accessway and a skipway occupy the same compartment in a raise, the accessway is not used by workers when the skip is in motion, and a guard is installed between the accessway and skipway to prevent workers from falling into the skipway.

The requirements of subsection (1) do not apply to a raise using mechanical raise equipment.

Suspended drill platforms

22.109 The employer must ensure that a suspended drill platform
(a) complies with the requirements in Part 13 (Ladders, Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms) for suspended work platforms,
(b) is stabilized to prevent lateral sway or spinning while in the work position,
(c) is provided with a protective canopy that fully covers the work platform during the first access following a blast, and provides protection for workers if a section is left open for work purposes,
(d) has an effective means of two-way communication between the hoist operator and the work platform, and the communication line is protected from damage,
(e) is provided with a safe means of emergency escape, and
(f) is examined at the beginning of each shift, and has any defects corrected before use.

Hoists and Shafts Access ways

22.140 The employer must ensure that ladder ways, access ways, and platforms are maintained in a safe and clean condition and kept clear of the material hoist system.

Part 23 — Oil and Gas Ladder platforms

23.45 (1) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, App. J, s. 8 (a).] (2) A personal fall arrest system meeting the requirements of Part 11 (Fall Protection) may be used in place of a ladder safety system where such ladder system is required by the standard referenced in Part 13 (Ladders, Scaffolds and Temporary Work Platforms).
(3) Ladder platforms must be located as follows:
(a) on a triple-stand derrick, 2 or more between the floor and the derrickhand platform, and one or more between the derrickhand platform and the crown;
(b) on a double-stand derrick, one or more between the floor and the derrickhand platform;
(c) on a single-stand derrick, one platform at the level of the derrickhand platform;
(d) at the crown of each drilling rig.
(4) The platforms required by subsection (3) must, as far as practicable, be equally spaced, but not more than 9 m (30 ft) apart.

[am. B.C. Regs. 312/2003, App. J, s. 8; 422/2004, s. 2.]

Part 24 — Diving, Fishing and Other Marine Operations Wharves, Docks and Mooring Floats Ladders

24.2 Fixed ladders must be provided at every dock for access to and egress from the water, and must
(a) be spaced at intervals not exceeding 30 m (100 ft),
(b) extend from the top of the dock to at least 1 m (3.3 ft) below the lowest water level,
(c) be maintained free of barnacles and marine growth, and
(d) have their location identified by high visibility paint on the curb or bullrail.

Fishing Operations
General Requirements
Access and egress

24.83 Every portable ladder or gangway between a fishing vessel and shore, between vessels, or when used on board a vessel must be designed and rigged to provide safe access and egress.

Part 28 — Agriculture Definitions

28.1 In this Part:
“orchard ladder” means a self-supporting portable ladder of the tripod type, wide at the bottom and tapering towards the top, non-adjustable in length, and consisting of side rails, flat steps and a hinged, single leg back section.
[en. B.C. Reg. 312/2004.] Orchard ladders exception

28.25 Sections 13.2 (1) and 13.5 (a), (b) and (c) do not apply to orchard ladders. [en. B.C. Reg. 312/2004; am. B.C. Reg. 422/2004, s. 3.] Orchard ladders design

28.26 An orchard ladder must
(a) meet the construction requirements of CSA Standard CAN3-Z11-M81, Portable Ladders, except that the spreader requirement does not apply to orchard ladders,
(b) have a rail spread that increases at least an average of 6 cm (2.5 in) for each 30 cm (12 in) of ladder length, and
(c) when necessary for safety, have the feet of the ladder equipped with steel points or other non-slipping bases designed for the ground on which the ladder will be used.

[en. B.C. Reg. 312/2004.] Orchard ladders instructions and use

28.27 (1) An employer must ensure that
(a) the ladder used is appropriate for the task, and
(b) a worker using an orchard ladder is instructed in its proper use.
(2) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 422/2004, s. 4.] [en. B.C. Reg. 312/2004; am. B.C. Reg. 422/2004, s. 4.]

Previously installed fixed ladders exception

28.28 Despite section 13.2 (1) (a), a fixed ladder existing on or before January 1, 2006, and not conforming to the current or an earlier edition of ANSI Standard A14.3-1992, Safety Requirements for Fixed Ladders, may remain in use subject to any modifications considered necessary by the Board.
[en. B.C. Reg. 312/2004; am. B.C. Reg. 422/2004, s. 5.]

Part 29 — Aircraft Operations

Fall protection

31.17 (1) A firefighter working on an aerial ladder must wear a safety belt and lanyard meeting the requirements of CSA Standard Z259.1-95, Safety Belts and Lanyards, and the securing lanyard must limit a fall to no more than 30 cm (12 in).

(2) A firefighter located on an aerial platform must wear a full body harness and lanyard meeting the requirements of Part 11 (Fall Protection).
(3) Rescue ropes, rappelling lines and safety belts and harnesses including safety hooks, rope grabs, lowering devices, and related equipment must meet the requirements of NFPA 1983, Fire Service Life Safety Rope, Harness and Hardware, 1990 Edition.
(4) The incident commander may depart from the requirements of Part 11 (Fall Protection) to use a fall protection system if, in the incident commander’s opinion, such compliance is not practicable or may create a greater hazard, but subsections (1) to (3) of this section must be complied with.

[am. B.C. Regs. 312/2003, App. A, s. 4; 312/2003, App. A, ss. 4 and 5.] Aerial Devices and Ground Ladders
General
31.33 An aerial device used for firefighting must meet the requirements of NFPA 1904, Aerial Ladder and Elevating Platform Fire Apparatus, 1991 Edition.
[am. B.C. Reg. 312/2003, App. A, s. 5.] Ground ladders

31.37 (1) A ground ladder used by firefighters must meet the requirements of
NFPA 1931, Design of and Design Verification Tests for Fire Department Ground Ladders, 1989 Edition.
(2) A ground ladder must be used, tested and maintained in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 1932, Use, Maintenance, and Service Testing of Fire Department Ground Ladders, 1989 Edition.
[am. B.C. Reg. 312/2003, App. A, s. 5.]

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The permission to reproduce this material is provided by the Queens Printer for Manitoba. The Queens Printer does not warrant the accuracy or currency of the reproduction of this information
Workplace Safety and Health Regulation

Regulation 217/2006 Registered October 31, 2006

PART 1 DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL MATTERS

“portable ladder” means a ladder that is not fixed in place, and includes a stepladder.
“portable wood ladder” means a portable ladder constructed out of wood.

(b) a ladder-jack scaffold, being a platform that is supported by brackets attached to ladders;

PART 13 ENTRANCES, EXITS, STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS

LADDERS — GENERAL

Loads

13.7 Every ladder provided by an employer for use at a workplace must be designed and constructed and maintained to safely support any load that will be or is likely to be imposed on it. Worker to inspect ladder

13.8 An employer must ensure that a worker inspects a ladder for defects prior to each use. A ladder found to be broken or defective may not be used until it has been repaired and restored to its original design specifications. Metal ladders near electrical equipment

13.9 An employer must ensure that no worker uses a metal ladder or metal reinforced rails on a ladder near any exposed energized electrical circuits or equipment.
Coatings on wood ladders

13.10 An employer may not apply anything to a wood ladder, except
(a) a transparent protective coating; and
(b) a small identifying mark or symbol, which may be non-transparent.

PORTABLE LADDERS

Commercially manufactured portable ladder

13.11 An employer must ensure that a commercially manufactured portable ladder used at a workplace
(a) complies with the applicable requirements of the following standards:
(i) CSA Standard CAN3-Z11-M81 (R2005), Portable Ladders,
(ii) ANSI Standard A14.1-2000, American National Standard for Ladders — Wood — Safety Requirements,

(iii) ANSI Standard A14.2-2000, American National Standard for Ladders — Portable Metal — Safety Requirements,
(iv) ANSI Standard A14.5-2000, American National Standard for Ladders — Portable Reinforced Plastic — Safety Requirements; and
(b) is used and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and safe operating instructions. Site-fabricated portable wood ladder

13.12 An employer must ensure that a portable wood ladder fabricated on the worksite for use by a worker
(a) is constructed entirely from straight-grained, construction grade or better lumber that is free of
(i) loose knots, or knots greater than one-third the width or thickness of the material, and
(ii) sharp edges, splinters or shakes;
(b) has side rails that are
(i) at least 400 mm but not more than 500 mm apart, and
(ii) not notched, tapered, lapped or spliced;
(c) has evenly spaced rungs that are
(i) nailed directly to the edge of the side rails,
(ii) not more than 300 mm on centre,

(iii) at least nominal 25 mm ×100 mm, and
(iv) supported by filler blocks, of the same thickness as the rung, fastened between the rungs or secured by a single continuous wire; and
(d) if its length is
(i) 5 m or less, has side rails measuring at least nominal 50 mm ×100 mm, or
(ii) more than 5 m, has side rails measuring at least nominal 50 mm ×150 mm.

Double width site-fabricated portable ladder
13.13 An employer must ensure that a portable wood ladder fabricated on the worksite for use by a worker which is of double width
(a) is constructed entirely from straight-grained, construction grade or better lumber that is free of
(i) loose knots, or knots greater than one-third the width or thickness of the material, and
(ii) sharp edges, splinters or shakes;
(b) has side rails that are not notched, tapered, lapped or spliced;
(c) if its length is
(i) 5 m or less, has side rails measuring at least nominal 50 mm ×100 mm, or
(ii) more than 5 m, has side rails measuring at least nominal 50 mm ×150 mm;
(d) is composed of three rails that are evenly spaced;
(e) is at least 1.5 m wide; and
(f) has evenly spaced rungs that
(i) are not more than 300 mm on centre,
(ii) are at least nominal 50 mm ×100 mm,

(iii) extend the full width of the ladder, and

(iv) are supported by filler blocks, of the same thickness as the rung, fastened between the rungs or secured by a single continuous wire.

Extension ladders

13.14(1) An employer must ensure that an extension ladder used by a worker
(a) is equipped with locks that securely hold the sections of the ladder in the extended position; and
(b) does not exceed
(i) 14.6 m in length, if it consists of two sections, or
(ii) 20 m in length, if it consists of more than two sections. 13.14(2) An employer must ensure that, if a section of an extension ladder is extended, the extended section overlaps another section for at least
(a) one metre, for a ladder less than 11 m in length;
(b) 1.25 m, for a ladder between 11 m and 15 m in length; or
(c) 1.5 m, for a ladder over 15 m in length.

General limitation re length

13.15 An employer must ensure that no single portable ladder and no section of an extension ladder exceeds 9 m in length.

Portable ladders

13.16(1) When in use at a workplace, an employer must ensure that a portable ladder is secured against movement at all times during use and is placed on a stable, level base. 13.16(2) Without limiting subsection (1), an employer must ensure that
(a) where a portable ladder is used as a means of access to a platform, roof or other landing, it extends at least one metre above the platform, roof or other landing; and
(b) for a portable ladder other than a stepladder, it is placed against a structure so that the slope of the ladder is no more than 1:4.

Stepladders

13.17 An employer must ensure that a stepladder
(a) is not more than 6 m high when set for use; and
(b) has legs that are securely held in position by metal braces or an equivalent rigid support.

Workers using portable ladder

13.18 An employer must ensure that a worker using
(a) a stepladder or other commercially manufactured portable ladder does so in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and safe operating instructions; and
(b) a portable ladder other than a stepladder
(i) does not extend any part of his or her body, except his or her arms, beyond the side rails of the ladder, and
(ii) maintains a three-point contact on the ladder at all times. Prohibitions re use of portable ladder

13.19 An employer must ensure that a worker does not perform work from either of the top two rungs, steps or cleats of
(a) a portable ladder other than a stepladder unless the manufacturer’s specifications for the ladder permit it; or
(b) a stepladder, unless
(i) it has a railed platform at the top, or
(ii) the manufacturer’s specifications for the stepladder permit it.

FIXED LADDERS

Fixed ladders 13.20(1) An employer and an owner must ensure that a ladder that is permanently fixed to a supporting building or structure
(a) is designed by a professional engineer, as is its permanent attachment system to the building or structure;
(b) is constructed, erected and installed in accordance with the specifications certified by a professional engineer;
(c) is equipped with a suitable safety gate, or equally effective means of protection from falling, at all access openings in floors, platforms and rest platforms;
(d) where it is in a vertical position or at an angle of not more that 25/ to the vertical, it
(i) meets the requirements of the ANSI Standard, ANSI 14.3-2002, Safety Requirements for Fixed Ladders American National Standard for Ladders — Fixed —Safety Requirement,
(ii) has side rails that extend at least one metre above any platform, roof or other landing on the building or structure to which it is fixed,

(iii) has an opening in the platform, roof or other landing that does not exceed 750 mm × by 750 mm, and

(iv) is equipped, if it is more than 5 m high, with ladder cages and rest platforms, at intervals of not more than 5 m, or a fall protection system that meets the requirements of Part 14 (Fall Protection); and
(e) where it is fixed at an angle of more than 25/ to the vertical or more than one horizontal to two vertical, it is equipped with
(i) a handrail that extends its entire length and is between 800 mm and 920 mm above the front edge of the treads,
(ii) treads that are level and uniform in width and depth and in the vertical distances between them throughout the length of the ladder, and

(iii) on an open side, both a handrail and an intermediate rail or equivalent safeguard.
13.20(2) Clause (1)(c) does not apply to
(a) a landing that is serviced by more than one fixed ladder; or
(b) a fixed ladder installed before the coming into force of this regulation.

Fixed ladders re multi-level buildings

13.21 An employer and an owner must ensure that a fixed ladder that complies with the requirements of section 13.20 is used to provide access to every level of a multi-level building that is more than 4 m above the preceding level.

Ladders attached to extending boom

22.21(1) An employer must ensure that
(a) if a ladder is a permanent part of an extending boom on powered mobile equipment, no worker is on the ladder when the equipment is being moved or the boom is being articulated, extended or retracted; and
(b) if outriggers or stabilizers are incorporated into powered mobile equipment, no worker climbs a ladder attached to an extending boom unless the outriggers or stabilizers are deployed and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. 22.21(2) An employer must ensure that a worker who works from a ladder attached to an extending boom on power mobile equipment complies with Part 14 (Fall Protection).

Ladder systems

24.4(1) An employer must provide an appropriate ladder system for use by a worker who is required or permitted to climb on a lead. 24.4(2) A worker must use the ladder system when one is provided.
26.14(2) If a worker is required or permitted to enter an open excavation or trench that is more than 1.5 m deep, an employer must provide a ladder, stairway or ramp as a means of entering and leaving the excavation or trench.
26.14(3) If a ladder is used as the means for entering and leaving an open excavation or trench, an employer must ensure that the ladder
(a) extends 1 m above the top of the excavation or trench; and
(b) is located not more than 3 m from the worker, when a ladder is used in a trench.

PART 28 SCAFFOLDS AND OTHER ELEVATED WORK PLATFORMS

28.1(2) Except for work of short duration that can be done safely from a ladder, an employer must ensure that a worker engaged in work that cannot be done from the ground or other safe elevation is provided with a scaffold or an elevated work platform.
Additional criteria: scaffolds of particular height
28.7 An employer must ensure that a scaffold is equipped with each of the following that applies:
(a) if the scaffold platform is 3 m or more above the level a worker may fall, the scaffold platform is equipped with a guardrail on the open sides and ends of the platform that is in line with the outer edge of the platform;
(b) if a scaffold is more than 6 m in height, it is equipped with a suitable hoisting device for hoisting materials;
(c) if a scaffold is 9 or more metres in height, it is equipped with
(i) an internal stairway or ladders, and
(ii) if any ladder under subclause (i) exceeds 3 m in height, the ladder is equipped with fall protection attachments.

Ladder-jack scaffold

28.15(1) An employer must ensure that a ladder-jack scaffold is not more than 5 m above grade. 28.15(2) For a ladder-jack scaffold, an employer must ensure that it is designed and constructed
(a) in compliance with the requirements of ANSI Standard A10.8-2001, Safety Requirements for Scaffolding — American National Standard for Construction and Demolition Operations; and
(b) so that it has ladders that are spaced not more than 2.5 m apart and that it bears on
(i) both the side rails and the ladder rungs, or
(ii) the ladder rungs only, but only if the bearing area of each rung is at least 254 mm. 28.15(3) An employer must ensure that
(a) a ladder-jack scaffold is maintained in as level a position as possible;
(b) no more than two workers are on a ladder-jack scaffold at any one time; and
(c) if there is a risk that a worker using a ladder-jack scaffold may fall three or more metres, the worker uses a fall protection system that meets the requirements of Part 14 (Fall Protection).

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

© QUEEN’S PRINTER FOR NEW BRUNSWICK
NEW BRUNSWICK REGULATION 91-191 under the OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT (O.C. 91-1035)

Filed December 3, 1991

PART V NOISE AND VIBRATION

2001-33

33.1(2) In this section, “structural fire-fighting apparatus” includes pumper units, foam apparatus, aerial ladders, aerial devices and other similar apparatus. 97-121

Portable Ladders

97-121
51.91 Where a portable ground ladder is used for structural fire-fighting, an employer shall ensure that it meets or exceeds NFPA 1931, “Standard on Design of and Design Verification Tests for Fire Department Ground” Ladders, 1994 edition, and is used, maintained and tested in accordance with NFPA 1932, “Standard on Use, Maintenance and Service Testing of Fire Department Ground Ladders”, 1994 edition.
97-121

Aerial Devices

97-121
51.92(1) Where an aerial device is used for structural fire-fighting, an employer shall ensure that it

(a) meets or exceeds NFPA 1904, “Standard for Testing Fire Department Aerial Devices”, 1991 edition or Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada standard CAN/ULC – S515 – M88, “Standard for Automobile Fire Fighting Apparatus”, or
(b) is certified in writing by an engineer as being safe to elevate personnel to a work site above ground when used for structural fire-fighting purposes.

51.92(2) In this section, “aerial device” includes an aerial bucket, aerial ladder, elevating platform, aerial ladder platform or water tower that is designed to position personnel, handle materials, provide egress or discharge water, as the case may be. 97-121

Bulk Material in Bins, Hoppers and Process Vessels

54 An employer shall ensure that a bin, hopper or process vessel used to store bulk material
(a) is designed and built for removal of the material from the bottom, if the material is highly combustible, is provided with a lid and an adequate entilation system and is fire-resistive, and where appropriate, is provided on the outside with stairways or fixed ladders with platforms and guardrails.
Openings 111(1) An employer and a contractor shall each ensure that an opening into which an employee may fall, other than a hatchway, chute, pit or trap-door opening, is guarded
(a) on all exposed sides by guardrails, or
(b) by an adequately strong and supported cover secured over the opening.

111(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where an opening leads to a stairway or ladder, an employer and a contractor shall each ensure that the opening is guarded on all exposed sides, other than the entrance to the stairway or ladder, by guardrails.

Fixed Ladders

points as are required to prevent sway,

(e) has a clearance of at least 165 mm maintained between the rungs and the structure to which the ladder is affixed,
(f) does not have any rungs that extend above a landing,
(g) has side rails or other secure hand holds that extend at least 1.07 m above the landing and are spaced not less than 685 mm apart, and
(h) is removed from service when it has loose, broken or missing rungs, split side rails or other defects that may be hazardous to an employee.

121(2) An employer shall ensure that a fixed ladder that is more than 6 m in height is equipped with
(a) ladder cages, or
(b) a safety device that is designed and constructed to lock and to suspend an employee using the device if the employee loses hold of the ladder.

121(3) Subsection (2) does not apply where an employee on the ladder uses an individual fall-arresting system.

121(4) Where a ladder cage is used on a fixed ladder, an employer shall ensure that
(a) the cage is provided with metal hoops spaced to prevent an employee from falling away from the ladder and to contain an employee who may lean or fall against the cage,
(b) the cage extends not less than 685 mm and not more than 725 mm from the centre line of the rungs of the ladder,
(c) the cage is not less than 685 mm wide where it attaches to the ladder,
(d) the cage extends from a point 2.5 m from the base of the ladder to the top of the ladder,
(e) the inside of the cage is free of projections, and
(f) if the fixed ladder is more than 9 m in height, it is equipped with a rest

platform at intervals of no more than 9 m. 96-106

PART XI TEMPORARY STRUCTURES

Portable Ladders 122(1) An employer shall ensure that a portable ladder used at a place of employment is when it has loose, broken or missing rungs, split side rails or other defects that may be hazardous to the safety of an employee.

123 An employer shall ensure that a wooden portable ladder
(a) is made of No. 1 grade or better spruce or fir,
(b) is not painted other than by being preserved with a transparent protective coating,
(c) if a single ladder, does not exceed 6 m in length,
(d) has rungs
(i) free of knots,
(ii) designed to carry a load of 200 kg placed at the centre, (iii) uniformly spaced with a maximum rise of 300 mm,

(iv) secured to each side of the side rail of the ladder by at least three screws or barbed nails of adequate length or by attachments giving equivalent or better strength, and
(v) notched into the side rails of the ladder at least 13 mm on the lower side or with fillers installed between the rungs, and
(e) has side rails
(i) dressed on all sides and without sharp edges, and
(ii) with a uniform clear width between them of not less than 300 mm for ladders 3 m in length or less, and increasing 1 mm in width for each 100 mm in excess of 3 m.

2001-33

124(1) An employer shall ensure that a portable ladder complies with and is used in accordance with CSA standard CAN 3-Z11-M81, “Portable Ladders”.

position, and
(c) when extended, maintains a minimum overlap as follows:
(i) where the ladder is 11 m or less, the overlap shall be 1 m;
(ii) where the ladder exceeds 11 m and is 15 m or less, the overlap shall be 1.25 m; and (iii) where the ladder exceeds 15 m and is 22 m or less, the overlap shall be 1.5 m. 125(1) An employee who uses a portable ladder shall

(a) inspect the ladder before use,
(b) report any unsafe condition of the ladder to the employer,
(c) face the ladder and use both hands when climbing or descending, and
(d) when standing on a ladder, stand in the centre between the side rails. 125(2) An employee who uses a portable ladder shall ensure that
(a) the ladder is secured against movement,
(b) the side rails of the ladder extend at least 1 m above any platform or landing to which the ladder is a means of access, and
(c) if a step ladder, the legs are securely held in position by means of metal braces or an equivalent rigid support.

125(3) An employee who uses a portable ladder shall not
(a) splice ladders together unless the spliced section is braced so that the spliced side rails are as strong as the original side rails,
(b) place a ladder in front of or against a door unless the door is blocked in the open position, locked or guarded,
(c) use a ladder as scaffold flooring or as support for scaffold flooring,
(d) stand on the material shelf, the top or the top step of a portable step ladder, or
(e) work from the top three rungs of a portable single or extension ladder. 125(4) Paragraphs (1)(d) and (3)(c) and (e) do not apply to a firefighter engaged in structural fire-fighting or rescue.

97-121
Where an employee is using a portable ladder and is working close to an energized electrical utility line or utility line equipment, the employer and the employee shall each comply with the appropriate provisions of Part XIX

Metal Scaffolds

2001-33 136(1) An employer shall ensure that a metal scaffold
(a) is erected, used, maintained and dismantled in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications,
(b) if less than 6 m in height, is equipped with a continuous access ladder or stairway commencing at ground level, and
(c) if 6 m or greater in height, is equipped with a continuous access stairway commencing at ground level.

Ladderjack Scaffolds

2001-33 (c) is used only for operations where the work period between changes of scaffold position is of short duration and the load on the scaffold does not exceed 1.2 kPa, and (d) is not used by more than two employees at any one time.

138(2) An employer shall ensure that a ladder-jack assembly is securely fastened to the ladder so that it bears on the side rails.

138(3) Where a manufactured platform is used on a ladder-jack scaffold, an employer shall ensure that the platform is a minimum of 500 mm in width and is supported at intervals not exceeding 3 m.

2001-03

Swing Staging

2001-33
142(5) An employer shall ensure that the platform of swing staging is not less than 500 mm in clear width and is either a ladder type platform or a plank type platform. 142(6) An employer shall ensure that the side stringers, rungs and tie rods of a ladder type platform for swing staging conform to the following table:

LADDER TYPE PLATFORMS FOR SWING STAGING

142(7) An employer shall ensure that the flooring of a ladder type platform on swing staging is at least 19 mm thick plywood or another material of equivalent strength.

PART XIII EXCAVATIONS AND TRENCHES

182(1) An employer shall ensure that an employee does not, and no employee shall, enter an excavation or trench 1.2 m or more in depth unless
(a) the walls of the excavation or trench are supported by shoring, bracing or caging, the excavation or trench is cut in solid rock or the excavation or trench is sloped or benched to within 1.2 m of the bottom of the excavation or trench with the slope not exceeding 1 m of vertical rise to each 1 m of horizontal run,
(b) subsections 181(2), (3) and (4) have been complied with,
(c) loose material that may fall into the excavation or trench has been removed, and a ladder that extends at least 1 m above the excavation or trench is installed no more than 15 m from where the employee is working or some other safe means of access and egress is provided.

PART XIV PITS AND QUARRIES

192(2) Where a walkway under subsection (1) is inclined at more than 20 degrees and less than 50 degrees to the horizontal, an employer shall provide stairways or ladderways.
192(3) Where a walkway under subsection (1) is inclined at more than 50 degrees to the horizontal, an employer shall provide ladderways.
Utility Lines and Utility Line Equipment
2001-33
297 Where an employee may come closer to an energized electrical utility line or utility line equipment than a distance specified in subsection 289(1), an employer shall ensure that the employee does not use, and an employee shall not use a metal ladder or wire reinforced ladder.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
Copyright © 2009: Queen’s Printer, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR REGULATION 70/09
Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 2009 under the Occupational Health and Safety Act
(O.C . 2009-233)
(Filed August 7, 2009 )
PART V GENERAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

Roof work
29. (1) Where work is being done at a distance greater than 2 metres from the edge of a roof that has a slope of less than 3/12, the employer shall implement control zones to alert workers upon entering within 2 metres of the edge without an appropriate means of fall protection.
(6) Crawl boards and ladders used for roof work shall be securely fastened over the ridge of the roof or be otherwise effectively anchored.
(7) An eavestrough shall not be used to support a crawl board or ladder on a roof.

Openings, pits and tanks
30. (1) Where a worker is employed around an open tank containing liquid or a harmful substance, the sides of the tanks shall be constructed to extend at least
91.44 centimetres above a working platform or standard guardrails shall be provided to prevent the worker from falling into the tank.
(2) A hole or pit in a floor, roof, walkway or work area accessible to a worker shall be securely covered and identified.
(2) Where a vehicle service pit is used so frequently that compliance with this section is impractical, the perimeter of the pit shall be delineated by high visibility, luminescent, skid-resistant paint instead of guardrails.
(3) A vehicle service pit shall have a fixed ladder at each end.

PART XI SCAFFOLDS, STAGES AND WORK PLATFORMS

Portable ladder standards
148. (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this Part, portable ladder design, construction and use shall meet the requirements of
(a) CSA Standard CAN3-Z11 “Portable Ladders”;
(b) ANSI Standard A14.1-1990 “Safety Requirements for Portable Wood Ladders”;
(c) ANSI Standard A14.2-1990 “Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders”; or
(d) other standard acceptable to the minister.
(2) A manufactured portable ladder shall be
(a) marked for grade and use; and
(b) used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Job built ladders
149. Where a portable wooden ladder is constructed at the job site,
(a) the side rails
(i ) shall be of 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres nominal dimensions for lengths up to 5 metres, and 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres nominal dimensions for lengths from 5 metres to 7.3 metres, and
(ii) shall not be notched, dapped, tapered or spliced, and the distance between the inner faces of the side rails shall not be less than 38 centimetres or more than 50 centimetres;
(b) cleats shall be

(i ) 19 millimetres by 64 millimetres for ladder lengths up to 5 metres,
(ii) 19 millimetres by 89 millimetres for ladder lengths from 5 metres to 7.3 metres,
(iii) spaced at 30 centimetres centres, and
(iv) nailed directly onto the smaller surfaces of the side rails, using three 57 millimetres wire nails on each end of the 89 millimetre cleats, and two similar nails on each end of the 64 millimetre cleats;
(c) the spaces on the side rails between the cleats shall be filled with close fitting and well secured filler pieces that are the same thickness as the cleats; and

d) a double cleat ladder shall have 3 rails evenly spaced, and be 107 centimetres to 127 centimetres wide and have continuous cleats which extend the full width of the ladder.
Protective coatings
150. A protective coating applied to a wooden ladder, other than a small amount for identification purposes, shall be transparent to allow defects to be discovered by inspection.
Inspection
151. Portable ladders shall be inspected before use, and ladders with loose, broken or missing rungs, split side rails or other hazardous defects shall be removed from service.

Inclination and support

152. Where a portable single or extension ladder is in use
(a) the ladder shall be placed so that the horizontal distance from the base to the vertical plane of support is approximately one-quarter of the ladder length between supports; and
(b) the lower ends of the ladder side rails shall rest on a firm and level base and the upper support of the side rails shall be rested on a bearing surface strong enough to safely withstand the applied load.

Length

A ladder shall be of sufficient length to project approximately one metre above the level of the upper landing to which it provides access, except where there is limited clearance and the ladder is adequately secured. Restrictions on use
(1) Except as otherwise permitted by a manufacturer, a worker shall not work from either the top 2 rungs of a portable single or extension ladder or the top 2 steps of a stepladder.
(2) A ladder shall not be used as a scaffold component or as a horizontal walkway, ramp or work platform support except where the ladder is part of a premanufactured or engineered system.
(3) A worker shall maintain 3 points of contact when using a ladder.
(4) A worker may only work from a portable ladder without fall protection where
(a) the work is a light duty task of short duration at each location;
(b) the worker’s centre of gravity is maintained between the ladder side rails; and
(c) the ladder is not positioned near an edge or floor opening that would significantly increase the potential fall distance.

155. (1) A fixed ladder shall comply with the requirements of ANSI Standard A14.3 – 2002 “American National Standard for Ladders – Fixed Safety Requirements” or other standard acceptable to the minister.
(2) All fixed ladders, where a potential fall is more than 7.32 metres in length, shall be
(a) provided with platforms at intervals not greater than 7.32 metres;
(b) provided with safety cages starting at 2.13 metres and a maximum of 2.44 metres from the base of the ladder; or
(c) provided with acceptable devices to prevent workers from falling.
(3) Fixed ladders shall be anchored at intervals of not more than 3.05 metres for the entire length of the ladder.
(4) A continuous clearance of at least 17.78 centimetres shall be provided at the back of rungs of fixed ladders.
(5) Ladder rungs shall be omitted above the landing and the side rails shall extend at least 1.07 metres above the landing.
(6) Where acceptable devices to prevent workers from falling are used, platforms shall be provided at intervals not greater than 45.72 metres where the continuous length of climb is greater than 45.72 metres and every 45.72 metres afterward. Special purpose ladders

156. A special purpose ladder, including a ship’s ladder, escape ladder, individual rung ladder or a ladder visible to the audience in a theatre scenic unit or prop, shall be engineered or constructed to a standard acceptable to the minister.
Standards

159. Unless otherwise permitted by this Part, a scaffold shall be designed, erected and maintained in accordance with the requirements of
(a) ANSI Standard A10.8 -1988 “American National Standard for Construction and Demolition Operations – Scaffolding – Safety Requirements”;
(b) ANSI Standard A14.7- 1991 “Safety Requirements for Mobile Ladder Stands and Mobile Ladder Stand Platforms”;

Access to scaffolds

166. (1) Access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold up to 9 metres above a floor or grade shall be provided by
(a) end frames providing a ladder-like structure having horizontal members uniformly spaced at approximately 30 centimetres on centre; or
(b) a vertical or portable ladder or stairway, attached to the scaffold.
(2) Access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold over 9 metres above a floor or grade shall be provided by
(a) a stairway erected for the full height of the scaffold;
(b) a temporary passenger hoist approved for use under the Public Safety Act ;
(c) an attached vertical ladder, with rest platforms at least every 6.1 metres which are fully guarded except at the ladder location; or
(d) end frames with a ladder-like structure having horizontal members uniformly spaced at 30 centimetres on centre, and rest platforms at least every 6.10 metres which are fully guarded except at the ladder location.

A worker shall not climb the outside of scaffold frames between landings. Vertical ladders

167. (1) A vertical ladder providing access to working levels of a scaffold shall
(a) be adequately fastened to the scaffold;
(b) be configured so that its siderails extend approximately one metre above the uppermost working level; and
(c) have rungs spaced at 30 centimetres on centre and have a clear space of at least 15 centimetres behind each rung.
(2) A ladder attached to a scaffold shall be positioned so that its use will not cause the scaffold to become unstable.

Definitions -elevating work platforms
201. For the purpose of this section and sections 202 to 217
(qq) “aerial ladder” means a vehicle-mounted aerial device with a single or multiple-section ladder with or without a platform at the top;
A telescopic aerial device, aerial ladder, articulating aerial device, vertical tower, material-lifting aerial device or a combination of these, when vehicle-mounted, whether powered or manually operated, shall meet the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/ CSA -C225 “Vehicle-Mounted Aerial Devices” or other standard acceptable to the minister.
Fall protection – elevating work platform
207. (1) A person on an elevating work platform shall wear a personal fall arrest system secured to an anchorage point that is approved by the manufacturer or professional engineer.
(2) A worker on an aerial ladder shall be continuously protected by means of a personal fall arrest system as required by Part X or shall maintain 3 points of contact with the ladder at all times.

PART XVIII EXCAVATION, UNDERGROUND WORK AND ROCK CRUSHING

404. In this Part, “excavation” means a cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth’s surface resulting from rock or soil removal.
Excavation or access

407. (1) Where a worker is required to enter an excavation greater than 1.22 metres deep, a ladder shall be provided in the immediate area where the worker is employed, extending from the bottom of the excavation to at least 0.91 metres above the top of the excavation.

(2) Walkways entering excavations shall be
(a) not less than 50.80 centimetres wide;
(b) equipped with guardrails when over 1.22 metres above grade; and
(c) provided with cleats when the grade is over 1/6.

(3) A runway which is used by mobile equipment shall be equipped with curbs.

Access, egress and movement

458. (1) All workplaces shall have safe and appropriate means of access and egress.
A walkway shall not be less than 50.80 centimetres wide and shall be accessible by means of a fixed ladder or stairway.

PART XXIII DIVING AND OTHER MARINE OPERATIONS

Ladders and gang planks

463. (1) A dock, wharf or pier shall be provided with ladders regularly spaced at intervals not exceeding 30.5 metres about its perimeter and which extend from the deck to at least one metre below water level.

(2) A fixed or portable ladder, gangplank or other safe means shall be provided and used where necessary to board and leave floating equipment.

(3) Portable means of access shall be secured to prevent dislodgement.

(4) A gangplank shall be provided with a guardrail in accordance with section 28, and where practicable, equipped with intermediate rails.

(5) The surface of a gangplank shall be provided with a means to prevent slipping.

PART XXVI ELECTRICAL OPERATIONS

Low voltage electrical equipment – disconnection and lockout

484. (1) Low voltage electrical equipment shall be completely disconnected and locked out where required by Part IX before work is started on it.
(2) Where it is not practicable to completely disconnect low voltage electrical equipment, work shall be performed in accordance with an electrical safety program in accordance with a standard acceptable to the minister that
(d) prohibits the use of metal ladders, wooden ladders with wire reinforced side rails, metal scaffolds or metal work platforms;

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

This material is copyright © 2009, Province of Nova Scotia.

Occupational Safety General Regulations made under Section 82 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act
S.N.S. 1996, c. 7 O.I.C. 1999-195 (April 28, 1999, effective May 1, 2000*), N.S. Reg. 44/99 as amended up to O.I.C. 2004-14 (January 23, 2004), N.S. Reg. 4/2004 (*except as otherwise noted)

Part 13 – Premises and Building Safety, Construction and Demolition

Ladders 147

An employer shall ensure that a fixed ladder is designed, constructed, installed and maintained in accordance with ANSI standard A14.3 – 1992 “American National Standard for Ladders – Fixed – Safety Requirements”.

148 (1) An employer shall ensure that a portable ladder used at a workplace is
(a) able to withstand 4 times the maximum load likely to be imposed;
(b) clean and free of grease, oil or other substances that may cause slipping;
(c) maintained in a safe condition;
(d) inspected by a competent person before each use to ensure all components are in an adequate condition and the ladder is safe to use; and
(e) not used, where the inspection required in clause (d) identifies an inadequate condition with the ladder.

(2) An employer shall ensure that a person using a fixed or portable ladder shall
(a) face the ladder when climbing or descending;
(b) when more than 1 m above a safe surface, maintain adequate contact with the ladder, such as 3-point contact;

Clause 148(2)(b) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(c) where the person is standing on a ladder, stand in the centre between the side rails;
(d) where the ladder is a step ladder, not stand on the material shelf, the top or the top step of the ladder; and where the ladder is not a step ladder, not work from the top three rungs of the ladder. Subsection 148(2) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.

(3) Clauses (2)(b), (c), (d) and (e) do not apply to a firefighter engaged in structural firefighting or rescue.

(4) An employer shall remove a ladder from service when it has loose, broken or missing rungs, split side rails or other defects that may be hazardous to the safety of a person at the workplace.

149 (1) An employer shall ensure that a wooden portable ladder that is not commercially manufactured
(a) is made of No. 1 or No. 2 spruce, pine, or fir as graded according to CAN/CSA-0141-91, “Softwood Lumber”, or other lumber that provides an equivalent level of safety;

Clause 149(1)(a) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(b) is not painted other than by being preserved with a transparent protective coating;
(c) if a single ladder, does not exceed 9 m in length;
(d) has rungs that are
(i) free of knots,
(ii) designed to carry a load of 200 kg placed at the centre,

(iii) uniformly spaced with a maximum rise of 300 mm,
(iv) secured to each side of the side rail of the ladder by at least 3 screws or spiral nails of adequate length or by attachments giving equivalent or better strength, and Subclause 149(1)(d)(iv) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.

(v) subject to subsection (3), cleated to the side rails; and
(e) has side rails that
(i) are dressed on all sides and without sharp edges,
(ii) subject to subsection (3), have a uniform clear width between them of not less than 300 mm for ladders 3 m in length or less, and increasing 1 mm in width for each 100 mm in excess of 3 m,

(iii) where the ladder is less than 5.7 m in length, have dimensions of at least 50 mm thick by at least 100 mm wide, and

(iv) subject to subsection (3), where the ladder is 5.7 m or greater in length, have dimensions of at least 50 mm thick by at least 150 mm wide.

(2) An employer shall ensure that a ladder does not sway or sag in an unsafe manner.

(3) An employer shall ensure that a portable ladder that is designed specifically for the purpose of harvesting fruit from trees and is used only for that purpose, is erected, constructed, maintained and used so as to be adequate for that purpose.

(4) Subclause (1)(d)(v) and subclauses (1)(e)(ii) and (iv) do not apply to a ladder that conforms to the requirements of subsection (3).
150 (1) An employer shall ensure that a portable ladder that is commercially manufactured is designed and manufactured in accordance with CSA standard CAN3-Z11-M81, “Portable Ladders”.
(2) Despite subsection (1), an employer shall ensure that Grade 3 portable ladders, as described in any edition of CSA standard CAN3-Z11, “Portable Ladders”, are not used at a workplace.

(3) An employer shall ensure that a commercially manufactured portable ladder
(a) where it is an extension ladder, maintains an adequate overlap between the sections of the ladder;
(b) has locks engaged before the extension ladder is climbed; and
(c) where there is a risk of contact with live electrical conductors, is non-conductive.

Clause 150(3)(c) added: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.

151 (1) An employer shall ensure that when a portable ladder is used
(a) it is placed on a firm footing;
(b) it is secured in an adequate manner against movement as soon as reasonably practicable;

Clause 151(1)(b) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.

(c) as a means of access or exit, it
(i) has side rails that extend at least 1 m above any platform or landing, and
(ii) has a clearance of at least 150 mm between it and the supporting structure, except in the area where the ladder is supported against the structure; and

(d) as a step ladder, it has legs securely held in position by means of metal braces or an equivalent rigid support.
(2) An employer shall ensure that, when a portable ladder is used, it is not
(a) spliced together with another ladder unless the spliced section is braced so that the spliced side rails are as strong as the original side rails;
(b) placed in front of or against a door that can be opened towards the ladder unless the door is blocked in the open position, locked or guarded;
(c) used as a scaffold, ramp, or as a support for such flooring;
(d) placed on a box, barrel, scaffold, or other unstable base;
(e) lashed to another ladder to increase its length; or
(f) located in an elevator shaft or hoistway when such space is being used for hoisting.

152 Where a portable ladder is used as a means of access or exit for a height greater than 6 m and for 7 or more persons, an employer shall provide 2 separate lines of ladders.

Part 14 – Excavations and Trenches

167 No person shall enter an excavation or trench 1.2 m or more in depth unless an employer ensures that a ladder is installed that extends at least 1 m above the excavation or trench or some other adequate means of access and exit is provided
(a) that is no more than 15 m from where the person is working; or
(b) where a trench cage is used, within the trench cage.

Part 16 – Equipment for Firefighters

Portable ladders 200 Where a portable ground ladder is used for structural fire-fighting, an employer shall ensure that it complies with or exceeds NFPA standard NFPA 1931, “Standard on Design of and Design Verification Tests for Fire Department Ground Ladders”, 1999 edition, and is used, maintained and tested in accordance with NFPA standard NFPA 1932, “Standard on Use, Maintenance and Service Testing of Fire Department Ground Ladders”, 1999 edition.
Section 200 amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
Aerial devices 201 (1) In this Section, “aerial device” includes an aerial bucket, aerial ladder, elevating platform, aerial ladder platform or water tower that is designed to position personnel, handle materials, provide a means of exit or discharge water, as the case may be.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
All material on this page is acknowledged as © Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2010.
R.R.O. 1990, REGULATION 851
INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS
(FOR CONSTRUCTION SEE BELOW)
Premises
18. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position shall,
(a) be vertical;
(b) have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;
(c) be offset at each rest platform;
(d) where the ladder extends over five metres, above grade, floor or landing, have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade and continuing at least ninety centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;
(e) have side rails that extend ninety centimetres above the landing; and
(f) have rungs which are at least fifteen centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure which has a safety device which will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 18.

19. Where frequent access is required to equipment elevated above or located below floor level, permanent platforms shall be provided with access by a fixed,
(a) stair; or
(b) access ladder. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 19.

20. Barriers, warning signs or other safeguards for the protection of all workers in an area shall be used where vehicle or pedestrian traffic may endanger the safety of any worker. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 20.

Maintenance and Repairs

73. A portable ladder shall,
(a) be free from broken or loose members or other faults;
(b) have non-slip feet;
(c) be placed on a firm footing;
(d) where it,
(i) exceeds six metres in length and is not securely fastened, or
(ii) is likely to be endangered by traffic, be held in place by one or more workers while being used; and
(e) when not securely fastened, be inclined so that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is not less than 1/4 and not more than 1/3 of the length of the ladder. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 73.

ONTARIO REGULATION 213/91
CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
ACCESS TO AND EGRESS FROM WORK AREAS
70. (1) Access to and egress from a work area located above or below ground level shall be by stairs, runway, ramp or ladder. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 70 (1).
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a work area that is a suspended scaffold able to be moved to give access to a floor, roof or platform or to ground level.
O. Reg. 213/91, s. 70 (2).

Stairs and Landings

(2) As the construction of a building or structure progresses, permanent or temporary stairs shall be installed up to,
(a) the uppermost work level; or
(b) if stairs would interfere with work on the uppermost work level, to within the lesser of two storeys or nine metres below the uppermost work level. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 75 (2).
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply with respect to,
(a) a part of a building or structure in which only the structural steel beams or columns are erected; or
(b) a structure to which a permanent ladder is attached before the structure is raised into position. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 75 (3).

LADDERS

78. (1) A ladder shall be designed, constructed and maintained so as not to endanger a worker and shall be capable of withstanding all loads to which it may be subjected. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (1).
(2) A ladder,
(a) shall be free from defective or loose rungs;
(b) shall have rungs spaced at 300 millimetres on centres;
(c) shall have side rails at least 300 millimetres apart;
(d) shall be placed on a firm footing; and
(e) shall be situated so that its base is not less than one-quarter, and not more than one-third, of the length of the ladder from a point directly below the top of the ladder and at the same level as the base of the ladder, if the ladder is not securely fastened. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (2).
(3) The maximum length of a ladder measured along its side rail shall not be more than,
(a) five metres for a trestle ladder or for each of the base and extension sections of an extension trestle ladder;
(b) six metres for a step-ladder;
(c) nine metres for a single ladder or an individual section of a ladder;
(d) fifteen metres for an extension ladder with two sections; and
(e) twenty metres for an extension ladder with more than two sections. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (3).
(4) No ladder shall be lashed to another ladder to increase its length. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (4).
(5) In this section,

“extension trestle ladder” means a combination of a trestle ladder and a vertically-adjustable single ladder with a suitable means of securely locking the ladders together. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (5).

No ladder shall be present in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 79.
A ladder used as a regular means of access between levels of a structure,
(a) shall extend at the upper level at least 900 millimetres above the landing or floor;
(b) shall have a clear space of at least 150 millimetres behind every rung;
(c) shall be located so that an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions is available at the top and bottom of the ladder; and
(d) shall be secured at the top and bottom to prevent movement. O. Reg. 213/91,
s. 80.

81. (1) A wooden ladder,
(a) shall be made of wood that is straight-grained and free of loose knots, sharp edges, splinters and shakes; and
(b) shall not be painted or coated with an opaque material. O. Reg. 213/91,
s. 81 (1).
(2) The side rails of a wooden ladder of the cleat type,
(a) shall be not less than 400 millimetres and not more than 610 millimetres apart; and
(b) shall measure not less than,
(i) thirty-eight millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres if the ladder is 5.8 metres or less long, or
(ii) thirty-eight millimetres by 140 millimetres if the ladder is more than 5.8 metres long. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 81 (2).
(3) The rungs of a wooden ladder of the cleat type,
(a) shall measure not less than,
(i) nineteen millimetres by sixty-four millimetres if the side rails are 400 millimetres apart, or
(ii) nineteen millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres if the side rails are more than 400 millimetres and not more than 610 millimetres apart; and
(b) shall be braced by filler blocks that are nineteen millimetres thick and are located between the rungs. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 81 (3).

82. A double-width wooden ladder,
(a) shall have three evenly-spaced rails that measure at least thirty-eight millimetres by 140 millimetres;
(b) shall have rungs that,
(i) measure at least thirty-eight millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres,
(ii) extend the full width of the ladder, and

(iii) are braced by filler blocks that are at least 19 millimetres thick; and
(c) shall not be less than 1.5 metres wide and not more than two metres wide.
O. Reg. 213/91, s. 82.

83. (1) When a step-ladder is being used as a self-supporting unit, its legs shall be fully-spread and its spreader shall be locked. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 83 (1).
(2) No worker shall stand on the top of or the pail shelf of a step-ladder. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 83 (2).
84. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position,
(a) shall be vertical;
(b) shall have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;
(c) shall be offset at each rest platform;
(d) where the ladder extends over three metres above grade, floor or landing, shall have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade, floor or landing and continuing at least 90 centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;
(e) shall have side rails that extend 90 centimetres above the landing; and
(f) shall have rungs that are at least 15 centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals. O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure that has a safety device that will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall. O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2.

85., 86. Revoked: O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24.

Equipment, General

115. No barrel, box or other loose object shall be used as a work place or as a support for a ladder, scaffold or work platform. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 115.

Electrical Hazards

Tools, ladders, scaffolding and other equipment or materials capable of conducting electricity shall not be stored or used so close to energized electrical equipment, installations or conductors that they can make electrical contact.
O. Reg. 627/05, s. 7.

Support Systems

If a support system is used for the walls of an excavation, a ladder for access to or egress from the excavation shall be placed within the area protected by the support system. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 240.
Shafts
285. Every shaft shall have a means of access and egress by stairway, ladder or ladderway for its full depth during its construction and when it is completed.
O. Reg. 213/91, s. 285.
286. (1) A stairway, ladder or ladderway for a shaft that is more than six metres deep,

(a) shall have landings or rest platforms spaced at intervals not greater than 4.5 metres;
(b) shall be off-set at each landing or rest platform; and
(c) shall be located in a sheathed compartment that is constructed in such way that a worker who falls while on the stairway, ladder or ladderway will land on the landing or rest platform below. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 286 (1).
(2) Every landing and rest platform shall be wide enough to permit at least two workers to pass on it safely. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 286 (2).
(3) Every opening and ladderway shall be wide enough to permit the passage of a worker wearing rescue equipment and shall be at least 750 cm by 750 cm.
O. Reg. 631/94, s. 12.

287. (1) Every conveyance located in a service shaft that is more than six metres deep shall be separated from a stairway, ladder or ladderway in the shaft by a lining described in subsection (3). O. Reg. 213/91, s. 287 (1).
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply with respect to a conveyance located in a service shaft if the hoisting area is so remote from the stairway, ladder or ladderway that it is not possible for a load, bucket or device being hoisted or lowered to come into contact with the stairway, ladder or ladderway. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 287 (2).
(3) A lining shall consist of solid planks at least fifty-one millimetres thick and spaced not more than ten millimetres apart. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 287 (3).

Hoistways

288. (1) This section applies with respect to a hoistway that is more than six metres deep in which hoisting is carried out by mechanical power. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 288 (1).
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply to a landing at the bottom of a hoistway if the landing has one or more red lights that,
(a) are located where a person approaching the hoistway from a tunnel or from the lower end of a stair or ladder can see at least one of them; and
(b) are controlled by a switch readily accessible to a shaft attendant. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 288 (3).

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
Copyright © 2009: Queen’s Printer, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador

CHAPTER O-1.1 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT GENERAL REGULATIONS
Pursuant to section 34 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act
R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. O-1.1, Council made the following regulations:

PART 12 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHES AND CONSTRUCTION

12.3 The employer shall ensure that employees are not allowed to enter an excavation or trench 1 219 mm (4 ft.) or more in depth, and employees shall not enter unless 43._ the requirements of section 12.2 are complied with;
(b) CSA approved safety hats and footwear are provided and worn by the employee; 44._ Iladders, extending at least 914 mm (3 ft.) above the excavation or trench are installed and located no more than 15 240 mm (50 ft.) from where employees are working or other safe means of access and egress are provided; 43._ the sides and crests have been scaled down to prevent loose material from falling into the excavation or trench. (EC180/87)

PART 15 ACCESS TO WORKPLACES

15.2 On construction sites the employer shall ensure that means of access to every excavation, floor, platform and fixed scaffold where work is being performed above or below ground level shall

44._ be provided by a stair, runway, ramp, scaffold or ladder; and
(b) be maintained in place and in safe condition at all times. (EC180/87)

PART 22 STAIRS

22.6 The employer shall ensure that

44._ stairs and platforms made of perforated material shall not contain openings larger than 11 mm (7/16 in.);
(b) stairs, except service stairs which may be used for access to oiling platforms, machinery, etc., should be not less than 1 117 mm (44 in.) in width clear of all obstructions except handrails, and in no case shall be less than 914 mm (36 in.); 43._ the pitch of stairways except service stairways should be between 30 degrees and 35 degrees from horizontal and shall in no case be less than 20 degrees or more than 50 degrees; 43._ where the pitch would be less than 20 degrees a ramp shall be used and where the pitch is greater than 50 degrees a fixed ladder shall be used;

PART 23 LADDERS

23.1 (1) The employer shall provide a ladder where employees must work in an elevated or sub-level area not provided with other safe and recognizable means of access or egress.
(2) The employer shall ensure that a ladder is removed from service when it has loose, broken or missing rungs, split side rails or other hazardous defects. 43._ The employer shall ensure that 43._ all portable ladders shall be equipped with non-slip bases;
(b) portable metal or wire truss ladders shall not be used in the vicinity of electrical circuits or apparatus when the hazard of electrical exposure is present; 43._ Ibenches, boxes, tables or other makeshift substitutes shall not be used as ladders. (EC180/87)

23.2 The user of a ladder shall ensure that 44._ the base of an inclined portable ladder shall not be more than one-fourth the length of the ladder out from the vertical line of contact at the top unless the top is securely fastened;
(b) side rails of ladders when in use shall have secure footing and the top rest shall be rigid and have ample strength to support the applied load; 44._ Iwhere possible the top of the ladder shall be securely fastened to prevent movement; 43._ the side rails of a portable ladder shall extend at least 914 mm (3 ft.) above a landing; 43._ side rails have a uniform clear width between them not less than 305 mm (12 in.) for ladders 3 048 mm (10 ft.) in length and under, and increasing 6 mm (in.) in width for each additional 300 mm (1 ft.) in length. (EC180/87)
23.3 The user of a ladder shall 43._ inspect a ladder before use;
(b) report any unsafe condition of the ladder to the employer; 43._ Inot work from the top three rungs of a single or extension ladder;
43._ not lash or splice ladders together; 43._ not place a ladder in front of or against a door unless the door is blocked in the open position, locked or guarded; 43._ use both hands and face the ladder when ascending or descending;
(g) when standing on a ladder, keep the centre of his body between the side rails. (EC180/87)

23.4 The employer shall ensure that a wooden ladder 43._ is made of good quality, straight grained lumber;
(b) is not painted other than by being preserved with transparent protective coating; 43._ Iif made on a construction site shall have side rails 50 mm x 100 mm (2 in. x 4 in.) lumber; 43._ has rungs 43._ free of knots,
(ii) designed to carry safely a load 200 kg (450 lbs.) on the center of the rung,

(iii) uniformly spaced not exceeding a spacing of 300 mm (12 in.),
(iv) if flat, shall be at least 25 mm (1 in.) by 64 mm (2 ½ in.) and shall be secured by at least three screws or wire nails to each side,
(v) if flat, shall be notched into the side rails at least 13 mm (1/2 in.) on the lower side, or with fillers installed between the rungs; 43._ has round rungs shall be at least 31 mm (1 ¼ in.) diameter with tenons 6 mm (1/4 in.) less diameter fitting through side rails, secured with a screw or wire nail through tenon at mid-length; 43._ has side rails 43._ dressed on all sides with sharp edges taken off and free from splinters,
(ii) the minimum size of which for single wooden ladders shall be as follows: Length of Ladder Thickness Depth (feet) Up to and 29 mm 64 mm including 20 (1 1/8 in.) (2½ in.) Over 20 and up to and 31 mm 70 mm including 22 (1¼ in.) (2¾ in.) Over 22 and up to and 31 mm 76 mm including 30 (1¼ in.) (3 in.) (EC180/87)

23.5 (1) The employer shall ensure that 43._ step ladders shall not be over 6 096 (20 ft.) in length;
(b) step ladders shall be constructed so that when in the open position of the front section shall have a minimum slope of 89 mm (3 ½ in.) and the back section a minimum slope of 50 mm (2 in.) in each 305 mm (12 in.) length of side rail; 43._ when in position all treads of step ladders shall be level;

43._ the minimum inside width between side rails at the top step of step ladders shall not be less than 305 mm (12 in.) and the side rails shall have an additional spread of 25 (1 in.) for each 305 mm (12 in.) of length of step ladder; 43._ step ladders shall be equipped with metal braces to hold legs securely in position; 43._ back legs of all step ladders shall be at least 44 mm (1 ¾ in.) wide and of the same thickness as the side rails;
(g) cross rails and braces of step ladders shall be not less than 13 mm (1/2 in.) thick and shall be securely fastened;
(h) step ladders 3 048 mm (10 ft.) and less in height shall have a bottom cross rail and diagonal braces; 43._ step ladders over 3 048 mm (10 ft.) in height shall have bottom and intermediate cross rails and two sets of diagonal braces;
(j) cross rails shall not be less than 100 mm (4 in.) wide and diagonal braces shall not be less than 50 mm (2 in.) wide;
(k) step ladders shall be reinforced at each step by a metal tie rod or a metal brace;
(l) metal parts of step ladders shall be of malleable iron, wrought iron or steel;
(m) the material shelf and the top step on a step ladder are clearly marked to indicate that they are not steps.
(2) Side rails of step ladders shall have the following solid cross section or equivalent strength cross section:

Length of side rail Minimum Minimum (feet) thickness width Up to and 19 mm 70 mm including 10 (¾ in.) (2¾ in.) Over 10 and up to and 19 mm 76 mm including 12 (¾ in.) (3 in.) Over 12 and up to and 19 mm 82 mm including 16 (¾ in.) (3¼ in.) Over 16 and up to and 25 mm 82 mm including 20 (1 in.) (3¼ in.) Note: These thicknesses provide for a gain of not over inch in depth. Where gains of a greater depth are required, greater thickness must be used. (EC180/87)

23.6 The employer shall ensure that fixed or permanent ladders shall have parallel sides of either wood or metal and shall be permanently and securely fastened in such manner that the ladder 43._ is securely held in place at the top and bottom and at such intermediate points as are required to prevent sway;
(b) has a continuous clearance space of at least 165 mm (6 ½ in.) back of rungs; 43._ has rungs omitted above the landing and has rails or other secure hand holds which extend at least 1 067 mm (42 in.) above the landing. (EC180/87)

23.7 (1) The employer shall ensure that a fixed ladder more than 6 096 mm (20 ft.) in length is provided with
43._ a safety rail secured to the ladder; or

(b) cage guards with offset platforms at intervals not greater than 9 144 mm (30 ft.); or 43._ Iadequate fall arresting equipment.
(2) The employer shall ensure that employees working on fixed ladders more than 6 096 mm (20 ft.) in length shall wear adequate fall arresting equipment. 43._ Employees working on fixed ladders more than 6 096 mm (20 ft.) in length shall wear adequate fall arresting equipment. Where a safety rail is used, the employer shall provide an approved safety belt designed to be attached to the rail and all employees shall wear the safety belt and attach it to the rail. (EC180/87)

23.8 (1) The employer shall ensure that extension ladders, except when approved by the Division shall have no more than three sections and shall not exceed 18 288 mm (60 ft.) in length when fully extended;
(b) extension ladders have locks which securely hold the sections of the ladder in an extended position; Ithe minimum lap of sections of extension ladders when extended for use shall be Up to 1 158 mm (38 ft.) extended……………………………………..91 mm (3 ft.) overlap Up to 1 341 mm (44 ft.) extended……………………………………121 mm (4 ft.) overlap Up to 1 524 mm (50 ft.) extended……………………………………152 mm (5 ft.) overlap Over 1 524 mm (50 ft.) extended…………………………………….182 mm (6 ft.) overlap
(2) Ladder jacks shall not be used on extension ladders. Extension ladders shall not be used as part of a scaffold. (EC180/87)

23.9 In a building or structure under construction the maximum ascent by ladder or ladders shall be 9 144 mm (30 ft.);
(b) two separate lines of ladders or double ladders shall be provided if the ascent exceeds 6 096 mm (20 ft.) to a working place for more than three persons; and Ione ladder shall be designated for ascent and one for descent. (EC180/87)

23.10 A single section ladder shall not exceed 9 144 mm (30 ft.). (EC180/87)

24.1 Sections 24.1 to 24.34 revoked by EC43/06. (EC180/87; 43/06)

PART 29 HAND TOOLS AND PORTABLE POWER TOOLS

29.5 Without limiting the generality of the duties under section 29.4 every user shall carry tools in a way that does not interfere with their using both hands on the ladder or while climbing a structure or on any hazardous work requiring the use of both hands;

PART 33 POWERED MOBILE EQUIPMENT

33.18 The employer shall ensure that powered mobile equipment
(g) has safe and easy access to the operator’s station by means of a ladder or steps and handrail. (EC180/87)

PART 36 ELECTRICITY

36.24 The employer shall ensure that metal ladders and ladders having
reinforcing wire or other conducting material shall not be used near energized electrical conductors or equipment. (EC180/87)

PART 40 TANKS AND VESSELS

40.5 (1) The supports of all elevated tanks shall be accessible for the purpose of inspection.
(2) Every tank over 1 200 mm (4 ft.) deep containing liquids shall have a fixed permanent cover, and with manholes close to the bottom and need have outside ladders only. (EC180/87)

HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS

43.9 The employer shall ensure that tanks used for storing nonflammable hazardous liquids shall meet the following requirements:
(a) provided with stairways or permanent ladders and platforms where necessary, for convenient and safe access to all parts of the tanks with standard safe railings on both stairways and platforms and preferably with floors or platforms constructed of grating. (EC180/87)

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

© Gouvernement du Québec, 2009
c. S-2.1, r.19.01

Regulation Respecting Occupational Health and Safety An Act respecting occupational health and safety
R.S.Q., c. S-2.1, s. 223. 1st par. subpar. (1), (3), (4), (7) to (16), (18) to (21.1),
(41) and (42), 2nd par. and 3rd par

DIVISION III ESTABLISHMENT CONDITIONS

21. Work station access: Machines, machine rooms or service platforms for these machines, which constitute a work station, shall, if they are situated above or below a floor and if they are not serviced by a stairway, be accessible by a service stairway, an access ramp or a fixed ladder.
However, access to such a place by means of a fixed ladder is prohibited when a worker cannot use both hands for holding onto the side rails or rungs of the permanent ladder.

This section does not apply to a vehicle.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 21.

23. Permanent ladders: Permanent ladders used to replace service stairs shall :
(1) be of safe construction and solidly anchored to withstand a mass of 90 kilograms at the centre of the rungs with a safety factor of 4 ;
(2) for ladders exceeding 9 metres, have rest platforms equipped with guardrails, at least at 6-metre intervals ;
(3) have a space behind the rungs of at least 150 millimetres ;
(4) have a free space on each side of at least 375 millimetres and forward of at least 800 millimetres, measured from the centre of a rung ;
(5) extend 900 millimetres beyond the top storey ;
(6) be provided with guardrails surrounding the floor opening with a removable gate for access to the ladder ;
(7) be provided with crinolines or cages or a fall arrestor in compliance with the standard Fall arresters, vertical lifelines and rails CAN/CSA Z259.2.1-98, where there is danger of a fall greater than 6 metres.

Subparagraphs (3) and (4) of the first paragraph only applies to permanent ladders built, installed or modified starting from 2 August 2001.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 23.

24. Exception: Notwithstanding subparagraph (2) of section 23, the permanent ladders servicing elevated towers, water reservoirs or other elevated constructions to which workers only occasionally have access, may be exempt from rest platforms.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 24.

25. Compliance with the standard: Any portable ladder and any stepladder used on a work site shall comply with the CAN3-Z11-M81 Portable Ladders standard.
However, portable ladders and stepladders in use on 2 August 2001 may also be used if they are in good condition and if they comply with the ACNOR Z11-1969 Portable Ladders standard.
This section does not apply to three-rail orchard ladders.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 25.

26. Operating conditions: Portable ladders shall :
(1) rest on a firm base with the upper part propped on the 2 siderails ;
(2) be firmly held in place by one or more persons, if they are not firmly attached and if their length is equal to or more than 9 metres ;
(3) be protected against any sliding and against any shock that could compromise equilibrium ;
(4) if not firmly fixed, be so inclined that the horizontal distance between the base of the ladder and the vertical plane of its top support is approximately between the quarter and the third of the length of the ladder between its supports ;
(5) where used as a means of access :
(a) be firmly fixed in place ;
(b) extend 900 millimetres beyond the top storey ;
(c) have a space behind the rungs of at least 150 millimetres ;
(6) be set in such a manner that there is sufficient space at the base allowing safe access ;
(7) never be used as a horizontal prop ;
(8) never be linked to another ladder, end to end, by lapped joints ;
(9) when used close to electrical conductors, be made of wood or other insulating material ;
(10) have a sufficient length so the worker does not work from the 2 top rungs ;
(11) not be put on scaffolding, an elevated platform, an aerial basket or platform, on crates, barrels or in front of a door opening onto the ladder.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 26.

27. Maximum length: The length of a portable extension ladder with 2 or more extensions, measured along the siderails, cannot exceed 15 metres.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 27.

28. A stepladder: Any stepladder used on a work site shall :
(1) when used close to electrical conductors, be made of wood or other insulating material ;
(2) have the legs fully spread and the retaining device locked.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 28.

29. Prohibited usage: The top and the pail shelf of a stepladder shall never be used as a step.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 29.

30. Safety precaution: The worker shall always be turned facing the ladder or stepladder while climbing or descending.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 30.

31. Gangways and stationary platforms: Gangways and stationary platforms shall :
(1) not be subject to loads greater than the ones specified by the manufacturer or by an engineer ;
(2) be provided with guardrails complying with sections 12 and 13 on the sides exposed to falls, if their height from the ground or floor is higher than 450 millimetres, except for unloading piers and loading platforms ;
(3) if made of perforated materials and located more than 1,8 metres from the floor or the ground, not include openings through which a sphere 30 millimetres in diameter can pass ;
(4) have a minimum width of 600 millimetres for gangways or platforms built or modified starting on 2 August 2001 ;
(5) have a free space of at least 2 metres above and below, unless a danger sign is posted.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 31.

32. Installation of scaffolds: Scaffolds or devices designed and built for lifting persons shall be used in places where workers, from the ground or a solid structure, are unable to perform their work.
However, the use of a ladder or stepladder is permitted for work of short duration.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 32.

DIVISION XX SPECIAL ERGONOMIC MEASURES

167. Working on piles : A worker shall have the necessary equipment allowing him to reach the top of piles of material safely, such as step ladders, ladders, pinch grips or any other equipment designed for such purpose.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 167.

DIVISION XXIII HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING MATERIAL

247. Safe access : When a hoisting device has an operator’s station for moving the device about or a control station for hoisting, the latter shall be safely accessible by means of a ladder, steps, grip handles or any other means.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 247.

273. Safe access : The control or operating station of a self-propelled vehicle shall be easily and safely accessible by means of a step, grip handles or a ladder.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 273.

DIVISION XXVIII OTHER HIGH RISK TASKS

324. Work presenting a falling hazard : Maintenance, repair or de-jamming work that presents a falling hazard shall be performed with the assistance of scaffolds, work platforms, bridges, portable ladders, safety harnesses or other appropriate equipment.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 324.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

Copyright©2009 The Queen’s Printer, Saskatchewan, Manitoba

The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996

PART XI

Powered Mobile Equipment
Ladders attached to extending boom 166(1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) subject to subsection (2), no worker is on a ladder that is attached as a permanent part of an extending boom on powered mobile equipment during any movement of the equipment, including extension or retraction of the boom;

(b) where outriggers are incorporated into powered mobile equipment, no worker climbs a ladder attached to an extending boom unless the outriggers are deployed; and

(c) no worker operates any powered mobile equipment equipped with an extending boom unless the powered mobile equipment is stable under all operating conditions.

(2) Clause (1)(a) does not apply to firefighting equipment. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s166.

Ladders attached to extending boom

166(1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) subject to subsection (2), no worker is on a ladder that is attached as a permanent part of an extending boom on powered mobile equipment during any movement of the equipment, including extension or retraction of the boom;

(b) where outriggers are incorporated into powered mobile equipment, no worker climbs a ladder attached to an extending boom unless the outriggers are deployed; and

(c) no worker operates any powered mobile equipment equipped with an extending boom unless the powered mobile equipment is stable under all operating conditions.

(2) Clause (1)(a) does not apply to firefighting equipment. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s166.

PART XII Scaffolds, Aerial Devices, Elevating Work Platforms and Temporary Supporting Structures

Interpretation 168 In this Part:

(a) “aerial device” means a vehicle-mounted telescoping or articulating unit that is used to position a worker at an elevated worksite, and includes a work basket or bucket, an aerial ladder, an extendable and articulating boom platform, a vertical tower and any combination of those devices;

(k) “ladderjack scaffold” means a platform that is supported by brackets attached to ladders;

Scaffold required

169 Where work cannot be safely done from the ground or from a permanent structure, an employer or contractor shall provide a scaffold or other safe working platform or a ladder that meets the requirements of Part XVI for the use of workers. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s169.

Limited use of certain scaffolds

171(1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that the following types of scaffolds are used only as light-duty scaffolds:
(a) half-horse scaffolds;
(b) ladderjack scaffolds;
(c) single-pole scaffolds.

(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that the following types of scaffolds are used only as light-duty scaffolds unless the scaffold is designed by a professional engineer and constructed, erected, used, maintained and dismantled in accordance with that design:
(a) bracket scaffolds;
(b) outrigger scaffolds;
(c) suspended scaffolds;
(d) suspended powered scaffolds. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s171.

(4) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a scaffold that is built from the ground or other surface:
(a) is supported by a foundation that is of sufficient area, stability and strength to ensure the stability of the scaffold;
(b) is set level on a stable sill that is at least 38 x 240 millimetres and continuous under at least two consecutive supports;
(c) where an upright could penetrate the sill, a base plate is installed in the upright;
(d) is supported against lateral movement by adequate, secure bracing;
(e) is anchored:
(i) vertically at not less than four-metre intervals and horizontally at not less than six-metre intervals;
(ii) where designed by a professional engineer, at intervals recommended by a professional engineer; or

(iii) where commercially manufactured, at intervals recommended by the manufacturer;
(f) is provided with internal stairways or ladders if the scaffold is nine metres or more in height; and
(g) is checked to ensure that the scaffold is plumb and level after each tier is added.

(4) A single manufactured extending painter’s plank, or a plank that is 51 x 305 millimetre, number 1 structural grade spruce lumber or material of equivalent or greater strength, may be used in a ladderjack scaffold. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s174.

Half-horse scaffolds

178(1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that the legs of a half-horse scaffold are not spliced, are less than three metres high and have an angle of repose and an angle of splay that are 15° from the vertical.
(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a ladder is used to provide access to and exit from a half-horse scaffold. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s178.
Ladderjack scaffolds

180 An employer or contractor shall ensure that:
(a) brackets and ladders used for a ladderjack scaffold are:
(i) designed and constructed to support the anticipated load safely; and
(ii) used according to the manufacturer’s specifications and recommendations; and
(b) ladders used for a ladderjack scaffold are not more than three metres apart. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s180.

Crawl boards, roof ladders

190 An employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that a crawl board or roof ladder used for roof work is securely fastened to the roof. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s190.

PART XVI Entrances, Exits and Ladders

General duty re entrances, exits 248 An employer, contractor or owner shall provide and maintain a safe means of entrance to and exit from a place of employment and all worksites and work-related areas in or on a place of employment. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s248.

Ladders

252(1) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that every ladder is designed, constructed, used and maintained to perform its function safely.
(2) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that:
(a) no wooden ladder or stepladder is painted with any substance other than a transparent coating; and
(b) no ladder is made by fastening cleats across a single rail or post. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s252.

Portable ladders

253(1) In this section and section 254, “portable ladder” means any ladder that is not fixed in place, and includes a stepladder.
(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:
(a) a portable ladder is equipped with non-slip feet;
(b) a portable ladder is secured against accidental movement during use;
(c) a metal or wire-bound portable ladder is not used where the ladder or a worker handling or using the ladder may come into contact with an exposed energized electrical conductor; and
(d) a portable ladder extends at least one metre above any platform, roof or other landing to which the ladder is used as a means of access.

(3) An employer or contractor shall ensure that each worker who handles or uses a portable ladder is instructed in the requirements of this section.

(4) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a stepladder:

(a) is not more than six metres high when set for use;
(b) has legs that are securely held in position by means of metal braces or an equivalent rigid support; and
(c) when in use, has a front section slope at an angle of one horizontal to six vertical.

(5) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:
(a) an extension ladder is equipped with locks that securely hold the sections of the ladder in the extended position;
(b) where a section of an extension ladder is extended, the section that is extended overlaps another section for at least one metre;
(c) an extension ladder consisting of two sections does not exceed 14.6 metres in length; and
(d) an extension ladder consisting of more than two sections does not exceed 20 metres in length.

(6) An employer or contractor shall ensure that no single portable ladder and no section of an extension ladder exceeds nine metres in length. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s253.

Use of portable ladders

254(1) Where a worker uses a portable ladder other than a stepladder, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:
(a) the ladder is placed against the structure so that the slope of the lader is one horizontal to four vertical;
(b) the worker does not extend any part of the worker’s body except for the worker’s arms beyond the side rails of the ladder; and
(c) the worker maintains a three-point stance on the ladder at all times.

(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a worker does not work from either of the top two rungs or steps of a portable ladder, unless the ladder is a stepladder that has a platform equipped with a suitable handrail. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s254. Fixed ladders 255(1) In this section, “fixed ladder” means a ladder that is fixed to a structure in a vertical position or at an angle that is between vertical and 25° to the vertical, but does not include a ladder used in underground mining operations to which The Mines Regulations apply.

(2) A ladder that is fixed to a structure at an angle of more than 25° to the vertical, or more than one horizontal to two vertical, is deemed to be a stairway and is subject to the requirements of sections 121 and 251.

(3) An employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that:
(a) the rungs on a fixed ladder are uniformly spaced with centres that are not less than 250 and not more than 300 millimetres apart;
(b) a clearance of at least 150 millimetres is maintained between the rungs on a fixed ladder and the structure to which the ladder is affixed;
(c) a fixed ladder is securely held in place at the top and bottom and at any intermediate points that are necessary to prevent sway;
(d) the side rails of a fixed ladder extend not less than one metre above any platform, roof or other landing on the structure to which the ladder is fixed;
(e) a ladder opening in a platform, roof or other landing does not exceed 750 millimetres by 750 millimetres;
(f) a fixed ladder that is more than six metres high:
(i) is equipped with:
(A) platforms at intervals of not more than six metres or ladder cages, in the case of ladders installed on or before March 11, 1986; or
(B) platforms at intervals of not more than six metres and ladder cages, in the case of ladders installed on or after March 12, 1986; or
(ii) is equipped with a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of Part VII; and
(g) a fixed ladder in an excavated shaft is installed in a compartment that is separated from the hoist compartment by a substantial partition.

(4) Where a ladder cage is required by these regulations, an employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that:
(a) the ladder cage is constructed of hoops that are not more than 1.8 metres apart, joined by vertical members not more than 300 millimetres apart around the circumference of the hoop;
(b) no point on a hoop of the ladder cage is more than 750 millimetres from the ladder; and
(c) the ladder cage is of sufficient strength and is designed to contain any worker who may lean or fall against a hoop.

(5) In the case of a ladder cage constructed before July 1, 1997, an employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that:
(a) the lowest hoop of the ladder cage is not more than three metres from a platform, landing or the ground; and
(b) the uppermost hoop of the ladder cage is at the level of a platform, landing or roof.

(6) In the case of a ladder cage constructed on or after July 1, 1997, an employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that:
(a) the lowest hoop of the ladder cage is not more than 2.2 metres from a platform, landing or the ground; and
(b) the uppermost hoop of the ladder cage extends at least one metre above the level of a platform, landing or roof. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s255; 10 Aug 2007 SR 67/ 2007 s23.

Construction ladders

256(1) In this section, “construction ladder” means a ladder constructed at a worksite.
(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:
(a) the side rails of a construction ladder that is five metres or less in length are constructed of number 1 structural grade spruce lumber that measures not less than 38 by 89 millimetres or of material of equivalent strength and rigidity;
(b) the side rails of a construction ladder that is over five metres in length are constructed of number 1 structural grade spruce lumber that measures not less than 38 by 140 millimetres or of material of equivalent strength and rigidity;
(c) no construction ladder is more than 10 metres long;
(d) the rungs of a construction ladder are:
(i) constructed of number 1 structural grade spruce lumber that measures not less than 21 by 89 millimetres or of material of equivalent strength and rigidity;
(ii) supported by filler blocks or secured by a single continuous wire; and

(iii) uniformly spaced with not more than 300 millimetres between their centres;
(e) the width between the side rails of a construction ladder is at least 500 millimetres;
(f) every two-way construction ladder that permits traffic in both directions at the same time is not less than 1.2 metres wide and is constructed with a centre structural rail throughout the ladder’s entire length; and
(g) no plywood is used for the side rails or rungs of a construction ladder. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s256.

PART XVII Excavations, Trenches, Tunnels and Excavated Shafts

(6) Where a worker is required to enter a trench, an employer or contractor shall:
(a) install ladders, stairways or ramps to provide a safe means of entrance to and exit from the trench; and
(b) ensure that the ladder, stairway or ramp is located not more than eight metres from a worker working in the trench.

(7) An employer or contractor shall ensure that workers are instructed in and comply with the requirements of this section. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s263.

Platforms, ladders and stairways

421(1) An employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that:
(a) a derrick is equipped with a fixed ladder or ladders providing access from the derrick floor to the crown platform and to each intermediate platform; and
(b) platforms are provided:
(i) on a drilling rig, at the fourble board, stabbing board and crown; and
(ii) on a service rig, at the tubing board and rod basket.
(2) An employer, contractor or owner shall ensure that a derrick floor and all stairways, ladders, ramps, catwalks and platforms are kept free of obstructions that may hinder or prevent the exit of workers. 4 Oct 96 cO-1.1 Reg 1 s421.

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