confined space training

Confined Space Training Online

Working in confined spaces is a quite common occurrence in many industries and business, but confined spaces present their own unique problems and potential safety situations. That’s why it’s so important to understand confined space safety and ensure employees are trained in safety protocol and confined space procedure.

  • Pricing

  • 1-10 units: $32.95
  • 11-25 units: $30.95
  • 26-50 units:$27.95
  • 51-100 units: $25.95
  • 101-500 units: $22.95
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Our Confined Space training online provides better cost savings and more flexibility than in-class training. This confined space awareness course will guide you and your employees through every step of the learning process. After successfully completing the course, you will be provided with a 2-year confined space certificate and all the knowledge you need to protect employees and ensure safety. Here is a list of the topics covered in this course:

  • Confined Spaces
  • Confined Space Program
  • Confined Space Hazard Assessments
  • Confined Space Entry Plans
  • Confined Space Entry Permit
  • Confined Space Controls
  • Roles and Responsibilities
  • On-Site Rescue

Who Needs Dangerous Confined Space Learning?

A worker who must enter a confined space as a part of his or her job requirement should be well-educated in the procedures and safety protocol set forth for confined spaces. This might include:

  • Supervisors
  • Safety Attendants
  • Rescue Workers
  • Employees Who Work Within Confined Spaces

Confined spaces might be just a “part of the job,” but they should also be treated with caution and respect. This course can help to protect the lives and safety of your employees!

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Confined Spaces

  • Not designed for human occupancy
  • Atmospheric hazard, oxygen deficiency / enrichment, sour gas (H2S), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Limited access or egress

Confined Space Program

  • Identification of confined spaces, hazard assessments, entry plans, rescue plans, training, entry permits

Confined Space Hazard Assessment

  • Formal documentation by competent person
  • Oxygen, flammable, toxic, biological, chemical, physical, surfaces, mechanical, electrical, thermal, engulfment, hot work

Confined Space Entry Plans

  • Duties of workers, contractors, management and attendants
  • Rescue procedures, communication & equipment
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Lockout and Tagout
  • Ventilation, purging and inerting
  • Atmospheric testing

Confined Space Entry Permit

  • Description of work Hazards & how to control, duration of permit Testing for toxic gases PPE & rescue equipment inventory Record of entry and exit

Confined Space Controls

  • Testing, monitoring, calibration
  • Ventilation, inerting, purging
  • Lockout / Tagout of energy
  • Control of material movement
  • Training

Roles and Responsibilities

  • Attending worker, entrant, supervisor

On-Site Rescue

  • Training, equipment, plan, retrieval system, tripod.
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All our online training meets provincial and federal regulations. For specific outlines please select your province below.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following is © 1995 – 2010 Government of Alberta.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE 2009

Definitions

1 In this Code,

“confined space” means a restricted space which may become hazardous to a
worker entering it because of
(a) an atmosphere that is or may be injurious by reason of oxygen
deficiency or enrichment, flammability, explosivity, or toxicity,
(b) a condition or changing set of circumstances within the space that
presents a potential for injury or illness, or
(c) the potential or inherent characteristics of an activity which can
produce adverse or harmful consequences within the space;

Part 5 Confined Spaces
Code of practice
44(1) An employer must have a written code of practice governing the practices
and procedures to be followed when workers enter and work in a confined
space.
44(2) The code of practice must
(a) take into account and apply the requirements of this Part and of
section 169,
(b) be maintained and periodically reviewed, and
(c) identify all existing and potential confined space work locations at a
work site.
44(3) A worker involved in any aspect of a confined space entry must comply
with the requirements and procedures in the code of practice.

Hazard assessment
45 If a worker will enter a confined space or a restricted space to work, an
employer must appoint a competent person to
(a) identify and assess the hazards the worker is likely to be exposed to
while in the confined space or restricted space,
(b) specify the type and frequency of inspections and tests necessary to
determine the likelihood of worker exposure to any of the identified
hazards,
(c) perform the inspections and tests specified,
(d) specify the safety and personal protective equipment required to
perform the work, and
(e) identify the personal protective equipment and emergency equipment
to be used by a worker who undertakes rescue operations in the event
of an accident or other emergency.

Training
46(1) An employer must ensure that a worker assigned duties related to
confined space or restricted space entry is trained by a competent person in
(a) recognizing hazards associated with working in confined spaces or restricted spaces, and
(b) performing the worker’s duties in a safe and healthy manner.

Occupational Health and Safety Code 2009 Part 5
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46(2) An employer must keep records of the training given under
subsection (1).
46(3) An employer must ensure that competence in the following is represented in the workers responding to a confined space or restricted space emergency:
(a) first aid;
(b) the use of appropriate emergency response equipment;
(c) procedures appropriate to the confined space or restricted space.

Entry permit system
47(1) A person must not enter a confined space at a work site without a valid
entry permit.
47(2) An employer must establish an entry permit system for a confined space
that
(a) lists the name of each worker who enters the confined space and the
reason for their entry,
(b) gives the location of the confined space,
(c) specifies the time during which an entry permit is valid,
(d) takes into account the work being done in the confined space, and
(e) takes into account the code of practice requirements for entering, being in and leaving a confined space.
47(3) An employer must ensure that, before a worker enters a confined space,
an entry permit is properly completed, signed by a competent person and a copy
kept readily available.
47(4) Based on a review of similar confined spaces, an employer may issue an
entry permit that can be used for a number of similar confined spaces.

Safety and protection
Generally;
48(1) An employer must ensure that
(a) if a lifeline is required in a confined space or a restricted space, it is
used in a manner that does not create an additional hazard,
(b) the safety and personal protective equipment required under this
Code is available to workers entering a confined space or a restricted
space,
(c) a worker who enters, occupies or leaves a confined space or restricted
space uses the safety and personal protective equipment,

Occupational Health and Safety Code 2009 Part 5
5-3
(d) the personal protective equipment and emergency equipment required under this Code is available to workers undertaking rescue operations in a confined space or restricted space,
(e) equipment appropriate to the confined space or restricted space, including personal protective equipment, is available to perform a timely rescue, and
(f) a communication system is established that is readily available to workers in a confined space or a restricted space and is appropriate to the hazards.
48(2) An employer must ensure that all personal protective equipment and emergency equipment required for use in a confined space or a restricted space is inspected by a competent person to ensure the equipment is in good working order before workers enter the confined space or the restricted space.
48(3) An employer must ensure that written records of the inspections required
by subsection (2) are retained as required by section 58.

Protection — hazardous substances and energy
49(1) An employer must ensure that workers within a confined space are
protected against the release of hazardous substances or energy that could harm
them.
49(2) An employer must ensure that a worker does not enter a confined space
unless adequate precautions are in place to protect a worker from drowning,
engulfment or entrapment.
49(3) An employer must ensure that any hazardous energy in a restricted space
is controlled in accordance with Part 15.

Unauthorized entry
50 An employer must ensure that persons who are not authorized by the employer to enter a confined space or a restricted space are prevented from entering.

Traffic hazards
51 An employer must ensure that workers in a confined space or a restricted space are protected from hazards created by traffic in the vicinity of the confined space or restricted space.

Occupational Health and Safety Code 2009 Part 5
5-4

Testing the atmosphere
52(1) If the hazard assessment identifies a potential atmospheric hazard and a worker is required or authorized by an employer to enter the confined space, the
employer must ensure that a competent worker performs a pre entry atmospheric test of the confined space to
(a) verify that the oxygen content is between 19.5 percent and 23.0 percent by volume, and
(b) identify the amount of toxic, flammable or explosive substance that
may be present.
52(2) The employer must ensure that the testing required by subsection (1) is
performed using calibrated test instruments appropriate for the atmosphere
being tested and the instruments are used in accordance with the manufacturer’s
specifications.
52(3) The employer must ensure that as often as necessary after the first time a
worker enters the confined space, a competent worker
(a) performs the tests specified in subsection (1), and
(b) identifies and records any additional hazards.
52(3.1) The employer must ensure that if there is a potential for the atmosphere
to change unpredictably after a worker enters the confined space, the atmosphere is continuously monitored in accordance with subsection (2).
52(4) If tests identify additional hazards, the employer must deal with the
identified hazards in accordance with this Code.
52(5) The employer must ensure that the procedures and practices put in place
under subsection (4) are included in the code of practice.
52(6) The employer must ensure that the results of tests required by this section
are recorded.

Ventilation and purging
53(1) If the atmospheric testing under section 52 identifies that a hazardous
atmosphere exists or is likely to exist in a confined space, an employer must
ensure that the confined space is ventilated, purged or both before a worker
enters the confined space.

Occupational Health and Safety Code 2009 Part 5
5-5
53(2) If ventilating or purging a confined space is impractical or ineffective in
eliminating a hazardous atmosphere, the employer must ensure that a worker
who enters the confined space uses personal protective equipment appropriate
for the conditions within the confined space.
53(3) If mechanical ventilation is needed to maintain a safe atmosphere in a
confined space during the work process, an employer must ensure it is provided
and operated as needed.
53(4) If mechanical ventilation is required to maintain a safe atmosphere in the
confined space, the employer must ensure that
(a) the ventilation system incorporates a method of alerting workers to a failure of the system so that workers have sufficient time to safely leave the confined space, and
(b) all workers within the confined space have received training in the
evacuation procedures to be used in the event of a ventilation system
failure.
53(5) All workers must evacuate a confined space or use an alternative means
of protection if a ventilation system fails.

Inerting
54(1) An employer must ensure that a confined space is inerted if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate an explosive or flammable atmosphere within
the confined space through another means.
54(2) If a confined space is inerted, an employer must ensure that
(a) every worker entering the confined space is equipped with supplied air
respiratory protection equipment that complies with Part 18,
(b) all ignition sources are controlled, and
(c) the atmosphere within the confined space stays inerted while workers are inside.

Emergency response
55(1) An employer must ensure that a worker does not enter or remain in a
confined space or a restricted space unless an effective rescue can be carried out.
55(2) A worker must not enter or stay in a confined space or restricted space
unless an effective rescue can be carried out.

Occupational Health and Safety Code 2009 Part 5
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55(3) An employer must ensure that the emergency response plan includes the
emergency procedures to be followed if there is an accident or other emergency,
including procedures in place to evacuate the confined space or restricted space
immediately
(a) when an alarm is activated,
(b) if the concentration of oxygen inside the confined space drops below
19.5 percent by volume or exceeds 23.0 percent by volume, or
(c) if there is a significant change in the amount of hazardous substances
inside the confined space.

Tending worker
56(1) For every confined space or restricted space entry, an employer must
designate a competent worker to be in communication with a worker in the
confined space or restricted space.
56(2) An employer must ensure that the designated worker under subsection
(1) has a suitable system for summoning assistance.
56(3) An employer must ensure that a competent worker trained in the
evacuation procedures in the emergency response plan is present outside a
confined space, at or near the entrance, if
(a) the oxygen content of the atmosphere inside the confined space is less
than 19.5 percent by volume,
(b) the oxygen content of the atmosphere inside the confined space is
greater than 23.0 percent by volume,
(c) the concentration of a substance listed in Schedule 1, Table 2 inside
the confined space is greater than 50 percent of its occupational exposure limit, or
(d) a hazard other than one listed in clauses (a), (b) or (c) is identified by
the hazard assessment and the hazard cannot be eliminated or effectively controlled.
56(4) An employer must ensure that the tending worker under subsection (3)
(a) keeps track at all times of the number of workers inside the confined
space,
(b) is in constant communication with the workers inside the confined
space, and
(c) has a suitable system for summoning assistance.
56(5) A tending worker must not leave the area until all workers have left the
confined space or another tending worker is in place.

Occupational Health and Safety Code 2009 Part 5
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Entry and exit
57 An employer must ensure that a safe means of entry and exit is available
to all workers required to work in a confined space or a restricted space and to all
rescue personnel attending to the workers.

Retaining records
58 An employer must ensure that all records respecting entry and work in a
confined space, including entry permits and testing under this Part, are retained
for not less than
(a) one year if no incident or unplanned event occurred during the entry,
or
(b) two years if an incident or unplanned event occurred during the entry.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
The following is © 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Copyright Workers’ Compensation Board of British Columbia
Richmond, B.C., Canada. All rights reserved.

Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Regulation

General Requirements
9.2 Initial determination
The employer must
(a) ensure that each confined space in the workplace is identified, and
(b) determine whether any such space will require entry by a worker, either in scheduled work activities or as a result of foreseeable system failures or other emergencies.

9.3 Prohibited entry
If a confined space exists at a workplace but no worker entry is required, the employer must ensure that each point of access to the confined space is secured against entry or identified by a sign or other effective means which indicates the nature of the hazard and the prohibition of entry, and that workers are instructed not to enter.

9.4 Control of hazards
The employer must ensure that all confined space hazards are eliminated or minimized and that work is performed in a safe manner.

9.5 Confined space entry program
Before a worker is required or permitted to enter a confined space, the employer must prepare and implement a written confined space entry program which includes
(a) an assignment of responsibilities,
(b) a list of each confined space or group of similar spaces and a hazard assessment of those spaces, and
(c) written safe work procedures for entry into and work in the confined space, that address, where applicable
(i) identification and entry permits,
(ii) lockout and isolation,
(iii) verification and testing,
(iv) cleaning, purging, venting or inerting,
(v) ventilation,
(vi) standby persons,
(vii) rescue,
(viii) lifelines, harnesses and lifting equipment,
(ix) personal protective equipment and other precautions, and
(x) coordination of work activities.

Responsibilities
9.6 Administration
The employer must assign overall responsibility for administration of the confined space entry program to a person or persons adequately trained to do so.

9.7 Supervision
(1) The employer must assign responsibility for supervision to a person who is adequately trained to supervise the job before any worker enters a confined space.
(2) The responsible supervisor must ensure that
(a) pre-entry testing and inspection is conducted based on the written procedures,
(b) the precautions identified in the written procedures and the precautions required by this Regulation or which are otherwise necessary for the health and safety of workers are followed, and
(c) only authorized workers enter a confined space.

9.8 Instruction
Each person who is assigned duties or responsibilities related to entry into a confined space must be adequately instructed and trained in
(a) the hazards of the space, and
(b) the precautions identified in written procedures to properly perform their duties.

Hazard Assessment and Work Procedures
9.9 Hazard Assessment
(1) A hazard assessment must be conducted for each
(a) confined space, or each group of confined spaces which share similar characteristics, and
(b) work activity, or group of work activities which present similar hazards, to be performed inside a confined space.
(2) The hazard assessment required by subsection (1) must consider
(a) the conditions which may exist prior to entry due to the confined space’s design, location or use, or which may develop during work activity inside the space, and
(b) the potential for oxygen enrichment and deficiency, flammable gas, vapour or mist, combustible dust, other hazardous atmospheres, harmful substances requiring lockout and isolation, engulfment and entrapment, and other hazardous conditions.

9.10 Procedures
Written procedures specifying the means to eliminate or minimize all hazards likely to prevail must be developed, based on the hazard assessment required by section 9.9.

9.11 Qualifications
(1) The hazard assessment and written confined space entry procedures must be prepared
(a) by a qualified person who has adequate training and experience in the recognition, evaluation and control of confined space hazards, and
(b) in consultation with the person assigned overall responsibility for administration of the confined space entry program and with the joint committee or the worker health and safety representative, as applicable.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a) qualifications which are acceptable as evidence of adequate training and experience include
(a) certified industrial hygienist (CIH), registered occupational hygienist (ROH), certified safety professional (CSP), Canadian registered safety professional (CRSP) or professional engineer (P. Eng.), provided that the holders of these qualifications have experience in the recognition, evaluation and control of confined space hazards, or
(b) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007.] (c) other combination of education, training and experience acceptable to the Board.
[Amended by B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007.]

Identification and Entry Permits
9.12 Identification
When a confined space requires entry by a worker, each point of access which is not secured against entry must be identified by a sign or other effective means which indicates the hazard and prohibits entry by unauthorized workers.

9.13 When permits required
(1) An entry permit must be completed and signed by the responsible supervisor before a worker enters a confined space
(a) with a high hazard atmosphere,
(b) that requires lockout or isolation procedures to be followed, or
(c) in which there is a hazard of entrapment or engulfment.
(2) An entry permit must be posted at each designated point of entry to a confined space.
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply if
(a) the entry permit is posted at a minimum of one designated point of entry,
(b) the identification at other designated points of entry includes up-to-date information on whether it is safe to enter, and
(c) all workers authorized to enter are informed of the location of posted entry permits.

9.14 Contents of permit
An entry permit must identify the
(a) confined space and the work activities to which it applies,
(b) workers who are inside the space,
(c) required precautions for the space, and
(d) time of expiration of the permit.

9.15 Updating the information
(1) Once issued, the information on an entry permit may only be altered by
(a) the responsible supervisor who signed the permit to update it in accordance with subsection (2) or (3),
(b) the standby worker to update the list of workers inside the confined space, or
(c) the tester to record test results.
(2) An entry permit must be reviewed and updated as necessary to ensure the ongoing safety of the workers inside the space.
(3) The permit must be re-authorized and signed by the responsible supervisor
(a) if there is a change in the work crew,
(b) after each shift change, or
(c) after a change of the responsible supervisor.
(4) Every worker affected must be informed of an alteration of an entry permit regarding a change in the required precautions or work activity.

9.16 Record of permit
A copy of the signed entry permit must be kept for at least one year.

Lockout and Isolation
9.17 Lockout
Before a worker enters a confined space, any material conveyance equipment that transports material to or from the space must be free of material if the material could present a hazard.

9.18 Isolation
(1) Except as provided in subsection (2), before a worker enters a confined space, adjacent piping which contains or has contained a harmful substance must be controlled by
(a) disconnecting, blanking or blinding, or equivalent engineered system, or
(b) if the adjacent piping contains a harmful substance that is not a gas or a vapour, nor a liquid of sufficient volatility to produce a hazardous concentration of an air contaminant in the discharge of the piping, a double block and bleed system.
(2) If adjacent piping contains or has contained a substance that is hazardous only because of its pressure, temperature or quantity, before a worker enters the space, the pressure must be controlled
(a) to meet the requirements of subsection (1),
(b) provided there is no other pressure source or head pressure, by de-energizing and locking out the pressure source and depressurizing the line, or
(c) by other effective means.
(3) Repealed [B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007.] (4) Except when used in an acceptable double block and bleed system, the closing of one or more valves in a line is not an acceptable means of isolation.
(5) Isolation of a confined space from gases found in a gravity-flow municipal or domestic sanitary or storm sewer system may be accomplished by a p-trap, provided that
(a) the integrity of the trap is ensured immediately upon entry, and
(b) the atmosphere is continuously monitored and shown to contain clean respirable air.
[Amended by B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007.]

9.18.1 Exemptions
(1) In this section:
“public water supply system” includes valve and meter chambers and pressure reducing stations;
“dam water passageway” includes conduits, pipes, penstocks, power generating chambers, valves and related structures located within storage, diversion or other dams.
(2) Section 9.18 (4) does not apply to water piping that is part of a public water supply system if the piping and associated equipment is designed, constructed, maintained and certified by a professional engineer to American Water Works Association standards.
(3) Section 9.18 (4) does not apply to a dam water passageway if the structures of the passageway, including a gate valve or other flow control device, are certified by a professional engineer as being safe for workers to enter to perform the intended work.
[Enacted by B.C. Reg. 320/2007, effective February 1, 2008.]

9.19 Isolation points
(1) The employer must keep a record which identifies the location of every isolation point.
(2) Every isolation point must be visually checked or otherwise verified to ensure that the confined space is effectively isolated before a worker enters the space.

9.20 Blanks and blinds
(1) Unless certified by a professional engineer to provide adequate safety for the particular conditions of anticipated pressure, temperature and service, a blank or blind must be manufactured in accordance with the specifications of one of the following standards:
(a) ANSI Standard API 590-1985, Steel Line Blanks;
(b) ANSI Standard ASME/ANSI B16.5-1988, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings;
(c) ANSI Standard ASME B31.1-1992, Power Piping;
(d) ANSI Standard ASME B31.3-1993, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.
(2) If a blank or blind is certified by a professional engineer, the employer must keep a record of its certification, location and conditions of service.
(3) If required, an allowance for corrosion must be made in the design of a blank or a blind.
(4) A blank or blind must be stamped with or otherwise indicate its pressure rating.
(5) If a line is to be opened for disconnection or to insert a blank or a blind, written safe work procedures must be prepared and followed to prevent hazardous exposure of workers to its contents.
(6) Visual indication that a blank or blind has been installed must be provided at the point of installation.
(7) If required to prevent leakage, gaskets must be installed on the pressure side of blanks or blinds and flanges must be tightened to make the blanks or blinds effective.
(8) If threaded lines are used, threaded plugs or caps must be used to blind the lines.
[Amended by B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.]

9.21 Double block and bleed
If a double block and bleed isolation system is used
(a) the diameter of the bleed line must be no less than the diameter of the line being isolated, unless certified by a professional engineer,
(b) the bleed for a liquid system must be at a lower elevation than the block valves,
(c) all valves must be locked out in their proper open or closed position,
(d) the downstream block valve must be checked to ensure that it is capable of safely withstanding the line pressure,
(e) the bleed must be checked to ensure that it remains clear of obstructions while the confined space is occupied, either by continuous automatic monitoring or by manually checking within 20 minutes before worker entry, or before re-entry after the confined space has been vacated for more than 20 minutes, and
(f) in the event of discharge from the bleed line resulting from failure of the upstream block valve, all workers must immediately exit the confined space and the space must be effectively re-isolated before a worker enters the space.

9.22 Alternate procedures
(1) If isolation using the measures specified in section 9.18 is not practicable, the employer may implement alternate measures acceptable to the Board.
(2) All workers affected by measures implemented under subsection (1) must be informed of the measures taken and instructed in any applicable work procedures.
[Amended by B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007.]

9.23 Discharge area
The area of potential discharge from a disconnected line or from the bleed of a double block and bleed isolation system must be controlled to ensure that any accidental discharge will not present a hazard to workers.

Verification and Testing
9.24 Verifying all precautions
Before a worker enters a confined space, pre-entry testing and inspection must be conducted to verify that the required precautions have been effective at controlling the identified hazards and that it is safe for a worker to enter.

9.25 Testing the atmosphere
(1) Except as stated in subsection (7), before a worker enters a confined space, the employer must ensure that the atmosphere in the confined space is tested.
(2) The pre-entry testing must be
(a) conducted as specified in the written work procedures, and
(b) completed not more than 20 minutes before a worker enters a confined space.
(3) When all workers have vacated the confined space for more than 20 minutes, pre-entry testing, as required by subsection (1), must be repeated.
(4) While a worker is inside a confined space with a moderate or high hazard atmosphere, additional testing must be conducted as necessary to ensure the worker’s continuing safety.
(5) Whenever practicable, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere must be done.
(6) If a worker enters a confined space with a moderate or high hazard atmosphere, the employer must continuously monitor the atmosphere if a flammable or explosive atmosphere in excess of 20% of the lower explosive limit could develop.
(7) Pre-entry atmospheric testing is not required in a confined space with a low hazard atmosphere if
(a) the location and control of the space ensures that a more hazardous atmosphere could not inadvertently develop,
(b) such testing is not required to verify the effectiveness of an isolation or other pre-entry control,
(c) prior representative sampling has demonstrated that the atmosphere within the space or group of similar spaces meets the low hazard atmosphere definition, and
(d) the written entry procedures do not require such testing.

9.26 Procedures and equipment
(1) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.] (2) Each confined space test must be carried out by an adequately trained worker.
(3) The test record must show the date and time of the test, the initials of the tester and the levels or condition found.
(4) Test results, other than continuous monitoring results, must be posted without delay at all points of entry to the confined space.
[Amended by B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.]

Cleaning, Purging, Venting, Inerting
9.27 Cleaning, purging and venting
(1) When practicable, the employer must ensure that a confined space to be entered contains clean respirable air.
(2) If a confined space is known, or shown by pre-entry testing to contain other than clean respirable air, the hazard must be controlled by cleaning, purging or venting the space and the atmosphere must be retested before a worker enters the space.
(3) The dead-ends of a line that has been isolated must be cleaned, purged or vented to remove any harmful substance which could present a hazard to a worker entering the confined space.

9.28 Risk control
If clean respirable air cannot be assured in a confined space before worker entry, the employer must ensure that
(a) all workers entering the space wear appropriate personal protective equipment including respirators when necessary
(b) the concentrations of flammable gases and vapours are maintained below 20% of the lower explosive limit, and
(c) if flammable or explosive gases, vapours or liquids are present, all sources of ignition are eliminated or adequately controlled.

9.29 Inerting
(1) The employer must notify the Board in writing, and submit a copy of the proposed work procedures, at least 7 days before a worker enters a confined space which has been inerted.
(2) The employer must follow any additional precautions that are prescribed by the Board after review of the notification.
(3) If a confined space has been inerted
(a) all entry precautions for high hazard atmospheres must be followed, except the requirement for continuous ventilation,
(b) every worker entering the confined space must be equipped with supplied-air respiratory protection meeting the requirements of Part 8 (Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment),
(c) all ignition sources must be controlled, and
(d) the atmosphere inside the confined space must remain inerted while workers are inside.
(4) Subsection (1) does not apply to entry for the purpose of performing emergency rescue duties.

Ventilation
9.30 Continuous ventilation
Every confined space must be ventilated continuously while a worker is inside the space, except in
(a) an atmosphere intentionally inerted in accordance with section 9.29,
(b) a low hazard atmosphere controlled in accordance with section 9.31(2), or
(c) an emergency rescue, if ventilation is not practicable.

9.31 Low hazard atmospheres
(1) The employer must ensure that a minimum of 85 m3/hr (50 cfm) of clean respirable air is supplied for each worker inside a confined space with a low hazard atmosphere, except as permitted in subsection (2).
(2) Continuous ventilation is not required in a confined space which has a low hazard atmosphere, if
(a) the atmosphere is continuously monitored and shown to contain clean respirable air, and
(b) the space has an internal volume greater than 1.8 m3 (64 cu ft) per occupant, is occupied for less than 15 minutes, and the work inside the space generates no contaminants other than exhaled air.

9.32 Mechanical ventilation
(1) A ventilation system for the control of airborne contaminants in a confined space must be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with established engineering principles and must be specified in the written procedures.
(2) Ventilation equipment must be located and arranged so as to adequately ventilate every occupied area inside the confined space.
(3) If a contaminant is produced in a confined space, it must be controlled at the source by a local exhaust ventilation system if practicable, by general (dilution) ventilation, or by a combination of both.
(4) If practicable, a mechanical ventilation system for a confined space must be sufficient to maintain concentrations of airborne contaminants below the applicable exposure limits.

9.33 Natural ventilation
(1) If natural ventilation is relied upon for the control of airborne contaminants in a confined space, the rate of airflow through the space must be monitored and must be sufficient to maintain concentrations of airborne contaminants below the applicable exposure limits.
(2) Natural ventilation must not be used
(a) to ventilate a confined space that has a high hazard atmosphere, or
(b) if such ventilation could draw air other than clean respirable air into the confined
space.

Standby Persons
9.34 Low hazard atmosphere
If a worker enters a confined space which contains a low hazard atmosphere
(a) another worker must be assigned as a standby person,
(b) there must be a continuous means of summoning the standby person,
(c) the standby person must check on the well-being of workers inside the space at least every 20 minutes, and
(d) the standby person must have a means to immediately summon rescue personnel.

9.35 Moderate hazard atmosphere
If a worker enters a confined space which contains a moderate hazard atmosphere
(a) another worker or workers must be assigned as the standby person(s),
(b) a standby person must be stationed at or near the entrance to the space,
(c) the standby person must visually observe or otherwise check the well-being of the worker(s) inside the space, as often as may be required by the nature of the work to be performed, but at least every 20 minutes,
(d) there must be a continuous means of summoning the standby person from inside the space, and
(e) the standby person must have a means to immediately summon rescue personnel.

9.36 High hazard atmosphere, engulfment or entrapment
If a worker enters a confined space which contains a high hazard atmosphere, a risk of engulfment or entrapment or with any other recognized serious health or safety hazard
(a) another worker or workers must be assigned as the standby person(s),
(b) the standby person(s) must be stationed at the entrance to the space and must continuously attend to the standby duties,
(c) the standby person(s) must visually observe or otherwise continuously monitor the well-being of the worker(s) inside the space,
(d) there must be a continuous means of summoning the standby person(s) from inside the space,
(e) the standby person(s) must be equipped and capable of immediately effecting rescue using lifting equipment if required, or otherwise performing the duties of rescue persons, and
(f) the standby person(s) must prevent the entanglement of lifelines and other equipment.

Rescue
9.37 Provision of rescue services
(1) The employer must provide for the services of rescue persons when a worker enters a confined space.
(2) If the rescue persons are employees of another firm, or an agency such as a fire department, there must be a written agreement detailing the services that are to be provided.

9.38 Equipment and training
(1) Every person assigned rescue duties must be properly equipped and adequately trained to carry out such duties.
(2) A practice drill must be conducted at least annually.
(3) Records of training and practice drills must be maintained by the employer of the rescue persons.

9.39 Notification
(1) Before a worker enters a confined space, the responsible supervisor or the standby person must notify rescue personnel of work in the space.
(2) The responsible supervisor or the standby person must notify rescue personnel when all workers have completed their work and exited from the space.
(3) If more than one confined space is to be entered at the same time, notification of rescue personnel to be on alert status at the commencement of work is adequate.
(4) Notification requirements in this section do not apply if the written agreement indicates that rescue personnel are available 24 hours each day.

9.40 Summoning rescue
The employer must ensure that rescue personnel monitor any signalling system that will be used to summon the rescue persons in the event of an emergency whenever they have been informed by the responsible supervisor or the standby person that a confined space entry is in progress.

9.41 Rescue procedures
(1) Rescue or evacuation from a confined space must be directed by a supervisor who is adequately trained in such procedures or a qualified rescue person.
(2) Effective voice communication must be maintained at all times between workers engaged in the rescue or evacuation and the person directing the rescue.
(3) A rescue worker must not enter a confined space unless there is at least one additional worker located outside to render assistance.
(4) A self-contained breathing apparatus, or air supplied respirator with escape bottle, must be used during rescue operations in an unknown or IDLH atmosphere.
Note: Rescue procedures must apply every possible effort to eliminate, control or reduce the risk to emergency personnel responding to emergency situations including the use of mechanical ventilation.

Lifelines, Harnesses and Lifting Equipment
9.42 When required
(1) When entering a confined space which contains a high hazard atmosphere, a risk of entrapment or engulfment or with any other recognized serious health or safety hazard, the worker must wear a harness of a type which will keep the worker in a position to permit rescue.
(2) A lifeline must be attached to the harness and be tended at all times by a standby person stationed outside the entrance to the space.
(3) The standby person must be equipped with suitable lifting equipment if necessary to permit rescue.
(4) The use of a lifeline is not required if the risk assessment identifies obstructions or other conditions that make its use impractical or unsafe.

9.43 Standards
Harnesses, lifelines and lifting equipment must meet the requirements of standards acceptable under this Regulation.

9.44 Line entanglement
If one or more workers enter a confined space, provision must be made to prevent the entanglement of lifelines and other equipment.

9.45 Additional workers
If rescue cannot be effected by the standby person(s) using harnesses, lifelines and lifting equipment, then one or more additional workers must be stationed at the entrance to the confined space and these workers must be equipped and capable of entering the space and effecting rescue.

Personal Protective Equipment and Other Precautions
9.46 Personal protective equipment
Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.]

9.47 Emergency escape respirator
Workers entering a confined space which contains a high hazard atmosphere must carry on their person or have within arm’s reach an emergency escape respirator sufficient to permit them to leave the confined space without assistance.

9.48 Compressed gas cylinders
A cylinder of compressed gas is not permitted inside a confined space, except for a cylinder of compressed air supplied to a respirator, medical resuscitation equipment, handheld aerosol spray containers, fire extinguishers, or other equipment permitted by the Board.
[Enacted by B.C. Reg. 253/2001, effective January 28, 2002.]

9.49 Torches and hoses
When practicable, torches and hoses used for welding, brazing or cutting must be removed from a confined space when not in use and when the confined space is vacated.
[Amended by B.C. Reg. 253/2001, effective January 28, 2002.] Note: It may be impracticable to remove hoses for some short duration breaks of 60 minutes or less, particularly where the confined space is large or where the removal of hoses may create some risk to workers, for example, when hoses are removed from scaffolding. If removal is impracticable, alternate measures must be adopted under sections 9.4 and 9.5. The preferred method in most cases is to disconnect at source with safe venting procedures together with procedures to ensure no inadvertent reconnection while workers are on the break or, if this is not practicable, closing and putting a tag on connections located outside the confined space. Other applicable requirements in Part 9 must also be followed including those on ventilation, standby persons and retesting prior to re-entry. For further information, see the OHS Guideline on section 9.49 at www.worksafebc.com.
[Note added January 28, 2002.]

9.50 Electrical equipment
(1) Electrical tools and equipment used in a confined space must be grounded or double-insulated and so marked, and if wet or damp conditions exist inside the space, must be protected by an approved ground fault circuit interrupter as required by Part 19 (Electrical Safety).
(2) Electrical tools and equipment used in a confined space where flammable vapours of explosive gases, or liquids are present must be CSA approved for hazardous locations classified under CSA Standard C22.1-94, Canadian Electrical Code Part 1, as Class 1, Division 2, Groups A, B and C.

9.51 Non-sparking tools
Only non-sparking tools may be used in a confined space where flammable or explosive gases, vapours or liquids are present.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose

The permission to reproduce this material is provided by the Queens Printer for Manitoba. The Queens Printer does not warrant the accuracy or currency of the reproduction of this information.

Workplace Safety and Health Regulation
Regulation 217/2006
Registered October 31, 2006

“confined space” means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that
(a) except for the purpose of performing work, is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy; and
(b) has restricted means of access or egress.

PART 15
CONFINED SPACES
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Application
15.1 This Part applies to every workplace where a worker works in a confined
space.
Safe work procedures
15.2(1) An employer must
(a) develop and implement safe work procedures for working in a confined space;
(b) train workers in the safe work procedures; and
(c) ensure that workers comply with the safe work procedures.
15.2(2) The safe work procedures must include
(a) procedures for recognizing the risks associated with working in the confined
space;
(b) procedures for isolating – including blanking, disconnecting, interrupting and
locking out – pipes, lines and sources of energy from a confined space;
(c) safety and personal protective equipment to be used;
(d) procedures for communicating with a standby worker;
(e) an emergency response plan and rescue procedures to be implemented in the
event of an accident or other emergency in a confined space; and
(f) information about the entry permit system under section 15.4.

General requirements
15.3 Before requiring a worker to enter or work in a confined space, an employer
must
(a) identify and assess the risks to safety or health a worker is likely to be exposed to while in the confined space;
(b) identify and take measures to reduce, control or eliminate the risks to safety or
health associated with the confined space, including
(i) using alternative means of performing the work to be done that will not
require the worker to enter the space, and
(ii) making alterations to the physical characteristics of the space that may be
necessary to ensure safe access to and egress from all accessible parts of
the space;
(c) identify the appropriate type and frequency of tests and inspections necessary
to determine the likelihood of a worker being exposed to any of the identified risks,
and ensure those tests and inspections are completed by a competent person;
(d) identify the safety and personal protective equipment required to be used or
worn in the confined space by a worker while he or she performs work;
(e) identify emergency and personal protective equipment required by a worker
who undertakes rescue operations in the event of an accident or other emergency
within the confined space; and
(f) establish and implement an entry permit system for a confined space, in
accordance with section 15.4.
Entry permit
15.4(1) An entry permit system established by an employer under clause 15.3(f) must
(a) ensure that an entry permit containing the following information is completed
and signed by a competent person before a worker enters a confined space:
(i) the location of the confined space,
(ii) the name of each worker who will enter the confined space and the reason
for their entry,
(iii) the date and time during which the permit is valid; and
(b) specify
(i) the work being done in the confined space,
(ii) the safe work procedures for entering, being in and leaving a confined
space, and
(iii) all hazards to the safety and health of a worker identified by the risk
assessment carried out under clause 15.3(a).
15.4(2) An employer must ensure that a copy of the completed and signed entry
permit is readily available at the site of the confined space.
Review of entry permit
15.5(1) An employer must review and revise an entry permit when
(a) a work activity in a confined space changes;
(b) circumstances at the workplace or in a confined space change in a way that
poses a risk to the safety or health of a worker; or
(c) any of the workers or information listed in the permit changes.
15.5(2) An employer must ensure that a worker who may be affected by a change to
an entry permit or a work activity in a confined space is informed of the change.
No unauthorized entry 15.6 An employer and an owner must take all steps reasonably practicable toprevent any person, other than a worker who is required or permitted to do so, from entering a confined space.

SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

Requirements before confined space is entered
15.7(1) An employer must, before requiring or permitting a worker to enter or work in
a confined space,
(a) ensure that the worker entering the space wears a full-body harness attached
to a lifeline that is attached to a personal hoisting device, unless an alternate safe
method of access and egress is provided from all accessible parts of the confined
space;
(b) identify and take measures to ensure that a worker will not be exposed to the
risk of drowning or becoming engulfed or entrapped in any liquid or free-flowing
solid that may be present in the confined space; and
(c) identify and take measures to ensure that all energy sources that present a
hazard to a worker entering, occupying or leaving the confined space have been
locked out, and the energy sources have been put in a zero energy state.
15.7(2) An employer must ensure that the structural integrity of a confined space is
maintained when its physical characteristics are altered in order to ensure safe access
and egress by a worker.
Standby worker
15.8(1) An employer must ensure that
(a) a standby worker is designated for every confined space; and
(b) the standby worker remains present at the entrance to a confined space at all
times while a worker is in the space if the risk assessment done under
clause 15.3(a) has identified that the space is or may become hazardous to a
worker entering it for any reason, including:
(i) the design or construction of the confined space,
(ii) the materials or substances in the confined space, including the materials
or substances in its atmosphere, or
(iii) the work activities performed or the processes used in the confined
space.
15.8(2) An employer must ensure that
(a) a worker designated as a standby worker is
(i) qualified as a first aider 1, 2 or 3, as set out in Part 5 (First Aid), and
(ii) trained in confined space work and emergency and rescue procedures;
(b) the designated standby worker
(i) is in direct communication with the worker in the confined space, and
(ii) has a suitable system to summon assistance if necessary; and
(c) the worker in the confined space is able to directly communicate with the
standby worker.
Traffic hazards
15.9 An employer must ensure that appropriate barricades and warning signs are
provided to keep vehicle and pedestrian traffic away from a confined space in which
work is, or is about to be, carried out.

Purging and ventilating unsafe atmosphere
15.10(1) In the following circumstances, an employer must ensure that a confined
space is purged, ventilated or both before a worker is required or permitted to enter it:
(a) where there is or may be a concentration of a flammable or explosive
substance present at more than 10% of its lower explosive limit, the space must
be purged, ventilated or both so that the concentration is reduced to less
than 10%;
(b) where there is or may be an oxygen deficiency – oxygen content less
than 19.5% by volume – or oxygen enrichment – oxygen content greater than 23%
by volume – the space must be purged, ventilated or both so that the oxygen
content is at least 19.5% but not more than 23%;
(c) subject to subsection (2), where there is or may be a chemical or biological substance that creates a risk to the safety or health of the worker, the space must
be purged, ventilated or both to the extent possible to eliminate or reduce the risk
associated with the substance.
15.10(2) When a worker occupies a confined space that has an atmosphere that may
create a risk to the safety or health of a worker, the employer must ensure that
(a) the space is continuously ventilated to maintain a safe atmosphere; and
(b) the atmosphere is continuously monitored by a competent person.
Personal protective equipment and other control measures
15.11 When purging, ventilating or both cannot bring the atmosphere within a
confined space into compliance with clauses 15.10(1)(a) to (c), an employer must
ensure that additional control measures are undertaken to protect the safety and health
of the worker entering the space, including providing to a worker personal protective
equipment appropriate for the conditions in the confined space.
Entry prohibited
15.12 Despite any other provision of this Part, an employer must not require or
permit
(a) a worker to enter a confined space if the oxygen content level in the space is
above 23%; or
(b) a worker, other than a firefighter responding to an emergency, to enter a
confined space if a concentration of a flammable or explosive substance in the
confined space cannot be reduced to less than 10% of its lower explosive limit.
Emergency response – general
15.13 An employer must ensure that
(a) the personal protective and emergency equipment identified under
clauses 15.3(d) and (e) – equipment required to undertake rescue operations in
the event of an accident or other emergency within a confined space – is readily
available at the site of a confined space; and
(b) that, in the event of an accident or other emergency, the emergency response
plan and rescue procedures developed under clause 15.2(2)(e) are implemented.
Emergency response – top entry into confined space
15.14(1) When entry into a confined space is from the top, an employer must ensure
that, in the event of an accident or other emergency within the space,
(a) the worker entering the confined space and workers carrying out a rescue use
a full-body harness and are attached to a lifeline unless another appropriate
personal protective equipment system is provided;
(b) where a lifeline is used, the lifeline is attended by a worker who is trained in the
emergency response plan and rescue procedures; and
(c) where reasonably practicable, a personal hoisting device is
(i) available to assist with a rescue, and
(ii) located at the entrance to the confined space when a worker is in the
confined space.
15.14(2) Despite clause (1)(a), when the use of a full-body harness attached to alifeline would create an additional risk to the worker in the confined space or would not be reasonably practicable, an employer must ensure that an alternate method of rescue is available to immediately remove a worker from a confined space into which entry is
from the top.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following is © QUEEN’S PRINTER FOR NEW BRUNSWICK. All rights reserved.

NEW BRUNSWICK REGULATION 91-191

under the

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT
(O.C. 91-1035)

PART XVII
CONFINED SPACE

262 In this Part

“confined space” means an enclosed or partially enclosed space not designed or intended for continuous human occupancy with restricted access or egress and which is or may become hazardous to a person entering it because of its design, construction, location, atmosphere or the materials or substances in it or other conditions, but does not include a development heading in an underground mine;

“physical agent” means an energy or influence, such as noise, heat, cold or radiation that may affect the body or a part of the body or a function of the body.

262.1 This Part does not apply to a firefighter engaged in structural fire-fighting or rescue.
97-121

263(1) Where an employee is about to enter into a confined space, an employer shall appoint a competent person to verify by tests that

(a) the concentration of airborne chemical agents or airborne dust in the confined space is not hazardous to the health or safety of the employee,

(b) the concentration of an airborne chemical agent or mixture of chemical agents or airborne dust in the confined space does not exceed 50% of its lower explosive limit,

(c) the level of physical agents in the confined space is not hazardous to the health or safety of the employee,

(d) the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere in the confined space is not less than 19.5% by volume and not more than 23% by volume,

(e) the concentration, level or percentage referred to in paragraphs (a) to (d) is able to be maintained during the period of proposed occupancy of the confined space by the employee,

(f) any liquid in which the employee may drown or any free flowing solid in which the employee may become entrapped has been removed from the confined space,

(g) the entry of any liquid, free flowing solid or any hazardous substance into the confined space in a quantity that could endanger the health or safety of the employee has been prevented by a secure means of disconnection or the fitting of blank flanges,

(h) all electrical equipment and machines that present a hazard to an employee entering into, exiting from or occupying the confined space have been locked out, with the machines being put in a zero energy state and locked out in accordance with sections 239 and 240, and

(i) the opening for entry into and exit from the confined space is sufficient to allow safe passage of an employee who is using protective equipment or emergency equipment.

263(2) The competent person referred to in subsection (1) shall, when performing the tests required under paragraphs (1)(a) to (d), use appropriate and properly calibrated instruments that have been functionally tested.

263(3) The competent person referred to in subsection (1) shall in a written report

(a) set out
(i) the results of the tests made under subsection (1), and
(ii) an evaluation of the hazards of the confined space,
(b) set out the procedures to be followed by an employee entering into, exiting from or occupying the confined space,
(c) identify the protective equipment that is to be used by every employee entering the confined space,

(d) set out the emergency procedures to be followed in the event of an accident or other emergency in or near the confined space, including immediate evacuation of the confined space when an alarm is activated or there is any significant change in the concentration, level or percentage referred to in subsection (1), and

(e) identify the protective equipment and emergency equipment to be used by an employee who undertakes rescue operations in the event of an accident or other emergency.

263(4) An employer shall provide to each employee entering the confined space the protective equipment referred to in paragraph (3)(c) and to each employee who may undertake rescue operations the protective equipment and emergency equipment referred to in paragraph (3)(e).

263(5) An employer shall ensure that the written report referred to in subsection (3) and any procedures set out in the report are explained to an employee who is about to enter into the confined space or who may undertake a rescue operation in the confined space and the employee shall read the report and acknowledge that the report and the procedures were explained to the employee by signing a dated copy of the report.

263(6) An employer shall ensure that an employee who is about to enter into the confined space is instructed and trained in the procedures referred to in subsection (3) and in the use of the protective equipment referred to in paragraph (3)(c) and that an employee who may undertake rescue operations is instructed and trained in the procedures referred to in subsection (3) and in the use of the protective equipment and emergency equipment referred to in paragraph (3)(e).

263(7) Every employee who enters into, exits from or occupies the confined space shall follow the procedures referred to in subsection (3) and use the protective equipment and emergency equipment referred to in subsection (3) as required.

264(1) Where the tests referred to in subsection 263(1) indicate that paragraphs 263(1)(a) to (d) cannot be complied with, an employer shall, where practicable, purge the confined space to eliminate the hazards referred to in paragraphs 263(1)(a) to (d) and have the competent person re-conduct the tests required under subsection 263(1).

264(2) An employer is not required to purge a confined space more than once.

265 Where the competent person referred to in subsection 263(1) is unable to ensure that the concentration, level or percentage referred to in paragraphs 263(1)(a) to (d) is able to be maintained or where there is a possibility that a hazard referred to in paragraphs 263(1)(a) to (d) may occur while an employee is in the confined space, the competent person shall ensure that the confined space is continuously monitored for the hazard while the employee is in the confined space.

266(1An employer shall ensure that

(a) all protective equipment and emergency equipment identified under subsection 263(3)

(i) have been inspected by a competent person,
(ii) are in good working order, and
(iii) are at the entrance to the confined space before an employee enters the confined space;

(b) a competent employee trained in the procedures referred to in subsection 263(3) is
(i) in attendance outside the confined space,
(ii) in constant communication with the employee inside the confined space, and
(iii) provided with a suitable alarm for summoning assistance;

(c) the competent employee referred to in paragraph (b)
(i) holds a valid standard-level first aid certificate issued by the Canadian Red Cross Society or St. John Ambulance, and
(ii) is trained in artificial respiration and cardiopulmonary resuscitation;

(d) where required under subsection 263(3), every employee entering into, exiting from and occupying the confined space wears a full body harness attached to a life line that is attached to a secure anchor outside the confined space and is controlled by the competent employee referred to in paragraph (b);

(e) where there is more than one employee in the confined space, steps are taken to ensure that any life lines attached to body harnesses worn by the employees do not become entangled; and

(f) an employee who is trained in the emergency procedures referred to in subsection 263(3) and who is fully informed of the hazards in the confined space is in the immediate vicinity of the confined space to assist in the event of an accident or other emergency.

266(2) An employer shall ensure that the full body harness referred to in paragraph (1)(d) meets the requirements for Group E harnesses in CSA standard CAN/CSA-Z259.10-M90, “Full Body Harness”.
2001-33

267(1) An employer shall not permit an employee to enter or remain in a confined space where the concentration of an airborne chemical agent or mixture of chemical agents or airborne dust in the confined space exceeds 50% of the lower explosive limit of the chemical agent or mixture of chemical agents or dust.

267(2) Where the concentration of an airborne chemical agent or mixture of chemical agents or airborne dust in a confined space does not exceed 50% of its lower explosive limit, an employer shall ensure that

(a) explosion proof lighting is used, and

(b) the only work performed by the employee in the confined space is that of cleaning or inspecting and is of such a nature that it does not create any source of ignition.

267(3) Where the concentration of an airborne chemical agent or mixture of chemical agents or airborne dust in a confined space does not exceed 10% of its lower explosive limit, an employer shall ensure that

(a) explosion proof lighting is used, and
(b) the only work performed in the confined space is cold work using non-sparking equipment.

268 Where the concentration of airborne chemical agents or mixture of chemical agents or airborne dust in a confined space is hazardous to the health or safety of an employee or where the percentage of oxygen in the confined space is less than 19.5% by volume, an employer shall ensure that an employee who enters the confined space uses appropriate respiratory protective equipment capable of providing at least five minutes reserve of unaided life support beyond the time the employee is expected to be in the confined space.

269 Where the percentage of oxygen in a confined space is more than 23% by volume and an employee is to enter or work in the confined space, an employer shall ensure that the confined space does not contain any substance specified as flammable and combustible material or as dangerously reactive material in the Controlled Products Regulations under the Hazardous Products Act (Canada).

270 An employer shall ensure that electrical equipment taken into a wet or solidly grounded confined space is
(a) battery operated,
(b) double insulated,
(c) bonded to ground, extra low voltage and not exceeding 30 volts and 100 volt-amps, or
(d) bonded to ground and equipped with a ground fault circuit interrupter of the Class A type, which is tested before each use.

271(1) An employer shall ensure that the written report of a competent person required under subsection 263(3) is kept at the place of business of the employer nearest to the place of employment at which the confined space is located for a period of two years from the date on which the competent employee signed the report.

271(2) An employer shall make the written report referred to in subsection (1) available to an officer on request.

272 An employer shall ensure that adequate warning signs and barricades are installed to protect an employee in a confined space if a hazard from any form of traffic exists.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
Copyright © 2009: Queen’s Printer, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador
Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 2009
under the
em>Occupational Health and Safety Act
(O.C. 2009-233)

PART XXVII

CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

Confined space entry
511.
(1) An employer shall perform an assessment of the work area to determine whether it contains a confined space.
(2) For the purpose of this Part, “confined space” means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that
(a) is not designed or intended for human occupancy except for the purpose of performing work;
(b) has restricted means of access and egress; and
(c) may become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of
(i) its design, construction, location or atmosphere,
(ii) the materials or substances in it, or
(iii) any other conditions relating to it.
(3) A worker shall not work in a confined space after January 1, 2013 unless
he or she has completed a confined space entry program prescribed by the commission.
(4) An employer shall inform a worker who may have to work in a confined space of a hazard by posting signs or other equally effective means of advising of the existence of and dangers posed by confined spaces.

Corrective precautions
512. (1) Upon first entering a confined space, a worker shall assume the space is hazardous until the contrary is demonstrated.
(2) An employer shall ensure that a worker does not enter a confined space until
(a) an adequate assessment of the hazards related to the confined space has been carried out;
(b) a source containing a hazardous substance leading to the confined space is safely and completely blocked off or disconnected;
(c) a test required under subsection (11) has been completed;
(d) the worker is qualified to safely enter and perform dutieswithin the confined space;
(e) a written work permit documenting the tests and safety precautions has been completed; and
(f) a set of written safe work procedures has been developed and a worker has been instructed in these procedures.
(3) The assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) shall be recorded in writing and shall consider, with respect to each confined space,
(a) the hazards that may exist due to the design, construction, location, use or contents of the confined space; and
(b) the hazards that may develop while work is done inside the confined space.
(4) The record of the assessment may be incorporated into an entry permit.
(5) Where 2 or more confined spaces are of similar construction and present the same hazards, their assessments may be recorded in a single document, but each confined space shall be clearly identified in the assessment.
(6) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to carry out the assessment and shall maintain a record containing details of the person’s knowledge, training and experience.
(7) The assessment shall contain the name of the person who carries out the assessment.
(8) The person shall sign and date the assessment and provide it to the employer.
(9) On request, the employer shall provide copies of the assessment and of the record to
(a) the joint health and safety committee or the health and safety representative; or
(b) every worker who performs work to which the assessment relates, where the workplace has no joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative.
(10) The employer shall ensure that the assessment is reviewed as often as necessary to ensure that the assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) remains current.
(11) Appropriate tests for harmful vapours, gasses, fumes, mists, dusts or explosive substances and oxygen deficiency shall be made and recorded
(a) before entry into the confined space;
(b) after an interruption in the work procedures; and
(c) at appropriate intervals.
(12) Where a test made under subsection (11) indicates an unsafe condition, the confined space shall be ventilated or cleaned or both and periodically retested to ensure that:
(a) the oxygen content is between 20% and 22%;
(b) the concentration of flammable substances is maintained below 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) of that substance or substances; and
(c) a worker’s exposure to harmful substances is maintained at acceptable levels in accordance the TLVs established by ACGIH.
(13) Where a test under subsection (11) indicates the presence of a harmful or explosive substance and it is not feasible to provide a safe respirable atmosphere, an employer shall ensure that
(a) a worker entering the confined space is provided with and wears respiratory and personal protective equipment appropriate to the hazards likely to be encountered; and
(b) where a flammable or explosive gas or liquid is present all sources of ignition are controlled or eliminated.
(14) Where control measures referred to in subsection (13) cannot be implemented, a worker shall leave the confined space.
(15) Tests made under in subsection (11) shall be performed by a person who has been adequately trained in the proper use of testing and monitoring equipment.
(16) Equipment used in testing and monitoring shall be calibrated and monitored according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
(17) The completed permit referred to in paragraph (2)(e) shall be made available at the time of entry to all authorized personnel by posting it at the entry portal or by another effective means.

Work procedures
513.
(1) An employer shall ensure that a worker who is required or permitted to enter a confined space in which a harmful atmosphere exists or may develop or where he or she may become entrapped by material
(a) wears appropriate retrieval equipment which would keep the worker in a position to be rescued; and
(b) has a life-line attached to the retrieval equipment which is tended at all times by a person, stationed outside the entrance to the confined space who shall be equipped for and capable of effecting rescue
and the employer shall prevent entanglement of life-lines and other equipment where one or more workers enter the confined space.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the use of a lifeline is not required where an obstruction or other condition makes its use impractical or unsafe but, in that case, an employer shall implement procedures to ensure the safety of the worker.
(3) Where a worker is required to enter a confined space his or her employer shall ensure that an attendant
(a) is assigned the worker;
(b) is stationed outside and near
(i) the entrance to the confined space, or
(ii) where there is more than one entrance to the confined space, the one that best allows the attendant to perform his or her duties under subsection (4);
(c) is in continuous communication with the worker using the means of communication described in the relevant safe work procedure; and
(d) is provided with a device for summoning an adequate rescue response.
(4) An attendant shall not enter a confined space and shall, in accordance with the required safe work procedure,
(a) monitor the safety of the worker in the confined space;
(b) provide assistance to him or her; and
(c) summon an adequate rescue response where one is required.

Entry into confined space
514. A confined space shall be entered only where
(a) the opening for entry and exit is sufficient to allow safe passage of a person wearing personal protective equipment;
(b) mechanical equipment in the confined space is
(i) disconnected from its power source, and
(ii) locked out and tagged;
(c) pipes and other supply lines whose contents are likely to create a hazard are blanked off;
(d) measures have been taken to ensure that, where appropriate, the confined space is continuously ventilated;
(e) liquid in which a person may drown or a free-flowing solid in which a person may become entrapped has been removed from the confined space;
(f) adequate explosion-proof illumination is provided where appropriate; and
(g) adequate barriers are erected to prohibit unauthorized entry.

Explosives or flammable atmosphere
515. An employer shall ensure that a worker does not enter or remain in a confined space that contains or is likely to contain an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, unless
(a) the worker is performing only inspection, work that does not produce a source of ignition and, in the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration is less than 25% of its lower explosive limit, as determined by a combustible gas measuring instrument;
(b) the worker is performing only cold work and, in the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration is less than 10% of its lower explosive limit as determined by combustible gas instruments; or
(c) the worker is performing hot work and all of the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) in the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration is less than 5% of its lower explosive limit, as determined by a combustible gas instrument,
(ii) the atmosphere in the confined space does not contain, and is not likely to contain while a worker is inside, an oxygen content greater than 23%,
(iii) the atmosphere in the confined space is monitored continuously,
(iv) the entry permit includes adequate provisions for hot work and corresponding control measures, and
(v) an adequate alarm system and exit procedures are provided to ensure that workers have adequate warning and are able to exit the confined space safely where either or both of the following occur, in the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour
(A) the atmospheric concentration exceeds 5% of its lower explosive limit, or
(B) the oxygen content of the atmosphere exceeds 23% by volume.

Rescue from confined space
516. An employer shall ensure that emergency rescue procedures are established and followed where workers are trained in the event of an accident or other emergency in or near the confined space, including immediate evacuation of the confined space.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following is copyright © 2009, Province of Nova Scotia

Occupational Health and Safety Act
S.N.S. 1996, c. 7

Part 12 – Confined Space Entry

Application and interpretation
129 (1) In this Part, “confined space” means an enclosed or partially enclosed space
(a) not designed or intended for regular human occupancy;
(b) with restricted access or exit; and
(c) that is or may become hazardous to a person entering it because of its design, construction, location, atmosphere or the materials or substances in it or other conditions.
(2) Sections 130 to 137 do not apply to
(a) a development heading in an underground mine; and
(b) a firefighter engaged in structural fire-fighting or rescue, if the firefighter has received adequate training for confined space entry and rescue.
Clause 129(2)(b) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
[Note: Section 129 effective November 1, 2000.]

Assessment and written procedures
130 (1) An employer shall ensure that no person enters a confined space until the employer has fulfilled the requirements of this Section and a competent person has provided a written certificate, in accordance with Section 131.
(2) Where a workplace includes a confined space, the employer shall ensure that a person who may be required to enter the confined space has the information necessary to identify it as such.
(3) Where at least one confined space has been identified, an employer shall develop a written confined space entry procedure that includes provision
(a) that prior to the entry of a person into the confined space, an assessment of the confined space is
(i) done in accordance with subsection (8), and
(ii) recorded by the person conducting the assessment in accordance with Section 131;
(b) for the training required by a person who may enter a confined space in the course of the person’s work, and for the training required by a person who may undertake rescue operations with regard to a confined space, including training on
(i) proper use of personal protective equipment,
(ii) written rescue procedures,
(iii) maintaining contact between a person in the confined space and an attendant required under clause 134(2)(a) and the means by which the written rescue procedure is initiated in the event of an emergency in the confined space,
(iv) the limitations on the type of work that can be performed in the confined space, and
(v) the means of identifying a hazard while in a confined space;
(c) for the process for notifying a person entering a confined space of the specific type of work that may be performed in the confined space;
(d) for the method to be followed by a person entering into, exiting from or occupying the confined space;
(e) for the protective equipment that is to be used by every person entering the confined space;
(f) for the written emergency procedures to be followed in the event of an accident or other emergency in or near the confined space, including
(i) immediate evacuation of the confined space when an alarm is activated or there is any significant, unexpected and potentially hazardous change in the concentration, level or percentage referred to in subsection (8),
(ii) a determination of whether more than one person is required to be present outside a confined space during the occupancy of any person, and
(iii) a written rescue procedure;
Clause 130(3)(f) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(g) for the protective equipment and emergency equipment to be used by a person who undertakes rescue operations in the event of an accident or other emergency;
(h) for a written procedure for testing the confined space in an adequate manner, at regular intervals and on a continuous basis, if necessary, to ensure the concentration or level of a hazardous substance or physical agent complies with the limits in subsection (8); and
(i) for a means of ventilating the confined space to ensure the removal or dilution of all airborne hazardous substances from the confined space.
(4) An employer shall provide to each person entering the confined space and a person who may undertake rescue operations the protective equipment and emergency equipment referred to in this Section.
(5) An employer shall ensure that
(a) a person who enters a confined space is trained at least once every 2 years in accordance with the procedures set out in clause (3)(b); and
(b) a person who undertakes rescue operations is trained at least once every year in accordance with the procedures set out in clause (3)(b).
Subsection 130(5) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(6) Every person who enters into, exits from or occupies the confined space shall follow the written procedures and use the protective equipment and emergency equipment as required.
(7) An employer shall review the confined space entry procedure at least once a year and amend it, if necessary.
(8) An employer shall designate a competent person who shall perform the assessment required in clause (3)(a), which shall include
(a) where the level of a chemical substance or a mixture of chemical substances may constitute a hazard, tests to ensure that the concentration of a chemical substance or a mixture of chemical substances in the confined space does not exceed its occupational exposure limit under the Occupational Health Regulations or 50% of its lower explosive limit;
(b) where the level of a physical agent may constitute a hazard, tests to ensure that the level of the physical agent in the confined space is not hazardous;
(c) tests to ensure that the level of oxygen in the atmosphere in the confined space is not less than 19.5 % and not more than 22.5 %, unless the employer can demonstrate that an unsafe oxygen level is not a possibility in the circumstance;
(d) a determination of whether the concentrations, levels or percentages referred to in clauses (a), (b) and (c) can be maintained during the period of proposed occupancy of the confined space;
(e) a confirmation that any liquid in which the person may drown or any free flowing solid in which a person may become entrapped has been removed from the confined space or that work practices have been developed that specifically address the presence of the liquid or solid;
(f) a confirmation that entry of any liquid, free flowing solid or hazardous substance into the confined space that could endanger the health or safety of a person has been prevented by a secure means of disconnection, the fitting of blank flanges or the implementation of a double block and bleed written procedure established by the employer or similar positive actions;
(g) confirmation that a machine, equipment, tool or electrical installation that presents a hazard to a person entering into, exiting from or occupying the confined space has been locked out; and
(h) confirmation that the opening for entry into and exit from the confined space is sufficient to allow safe passage of a person who is using personal protective equipment or emergency equipment.
(9) Where there is no possibility that a hazard identified in clauses (8)(a), (b) and (c) may occur, the requirements of clause (3)(h) do not apply.
(10) The competent person referred to in subsection (8) shall, when performing the tests required under clauses (8)(a), (b) and (c), use appropriate and properly calibrated instruments that have been functionally tested and maintain a written record of the functional and calibration tests.
(11) An employer shall keep the assessment and the confined space entry procedure required under subsection (3) at the place of business of the employer nearest to the workplace at which the confined space is located.
(12) An employer shall make available a copy of the confined space entry procedure to all persons involved in the entry of a confined space.
[Note: Section 130 and amendments to it made by O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000 effective November 1, 2000.] Certification of confined space conditions
131 (1) Subsequent to performing the tests required in clauses 130(8)(a), (b) and (c), a designated competent person shall certify, in writing, that the conditions tested in the confined space are likely to be maintained within a predicted and recorded range for the entire time the certification is valid, and the certification shall include
(a) the signature of the competent person;
(b) the date and time of when the tests were performed;
(c) the type of work that
(i) can be performed in the confined space, and
(ii) is explicitly banned in the confined space;
(d) the means by which the work is to be performed;
(e) the expiry date and time of the certification; and
(f) a record of the tests performed and of the test results.
(2) No certification issued under subsection (1) shall be valid for longer than 24 hours after the time the tests required by clause 130(8)(a) and (b) were performed.
(3) An employer shall post a copy of the currently valid certification required in subsection (1) at the entrance to the confined space for the duration of the confined space occupancy.
(4) An employer shall maintain a copy of the certification required in subsection (1) for 12 months.
[Note: Section 131 effective November 1, 2000.]

Purging and further testing
132 Where the tests required in clauses 130(8) (a), (b) and (c) indicate that the concentration level or percentage referred to in those clauses cannot be complied with, an employer shall
(a) ensure that, where reasonably practicable, the confined space is purged at least twice to eliminate the hazards referred to in clauses 130(8)(a) to (d); and
(b) after the purging, ensure that the tests required under subsection 130(8) are conducted again.
[Note: Section 132 effective November 1, 2000.]

Response to hazardous condition
133 (1) An employer shall ensure that no person enters or remains in a confined space where the tests conducted under clause 130(8)(a) indicate that a concentration of a chemical substance or mixture of chemical substances in the confined space equals or exceeds 50% of the lower explosive limit of the chemical substance or mixture of chemical substances.
(2) Where the concentration of a chemical substance or mixture of chemical substances may cause a flammable or explosive hazard, and where the tests conducted under clause 130(8)(a) indicate that the concentration of the substance or substances in a confined space is between 10% and 50% of the lower explosive limit, an employer shall
(a) provide explosion-proof lighting and ensure that it is used where necessary; and
(b) ensure that the only work performed in the confined space is cleaning or inspecting and is of such a nature that it does not create any source of ignition.
(3) Where the level of oxygen in a confined space is more than 22.5% and a person is to work in the confined space, an employer shall ensure that the confined space does not contain any substance which would be classified as flammable and combustible material or as dangerously reactive material under the Controlled Products Regulations made under the Hazardous Products Act (Canada).
(4) Despite subsection (1), where the tests conducted under clause 130(8)(a) indicate that the concentration of a chemical substance or mixture of chemical substances in the confined space exceeds, or is likely to exceed, 50% of the lower explosive limit, measured at atmospheric conditions containing 20.9% oxygen, of the chemical substance or mixture of chemical substances and cannot be lowered below that prescribed threshold level, a person may enter the confined space if the employer ensures that
(a) the atmosphere is confirmed inert by a competent person after the performance of appropriate tests; and
Clause 133(4)(a) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(b) the person is using appropriate protective equipment when working in the confined space.
Subsection 133(4) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
[Note: Section 133 and amendments to it made by O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000 effective November 1, 2000.]

Protective equipment and security measures
134 (1) An employer shall ensure that all protective equipment and emergency equipment identified under subsection 130(3) is provided as close as reasonably practicable to the entrance to the confined space before a person enters the confined space.
(2) Where a person enters a confined space, an employer shall ensure that a designated competent person
(a) is in attendance in the immediate vicinity of the confined space;
(b) has a means of adequate communication with a person inside the confined space;
Clause 134(2)(b) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(c) is provided with a means of activating the rescue procedure in an emergency;
(d) is adequately trained in the emergency response procedure; and
Clause 134(2)(d) replaced: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(e) maintains a record of who is in the confined space.
Clause 134(2)(e) added: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(3) An employer shall
(a) where reasonably practicable, provide a person entering into and occupying a confined space with a full body harness;
(b) ensure that a full body harness provided under clause (a) is worn; and
(c) where it does not present a hazard, ensure that an attached life line is
(i) securely fastened to an anchor point, and
(ii) controlled by the competent person referred to in subsection (2).
(4) An employer shall ensure that the full body harness referred to in subsection (3) complies with the requirements for Group E harnesses in CSA standard CAN/CSA-259.10-M90, “Full Body Harnesses”.
[Note: Section 134 and amendments to it made by O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000 effective November 1, 2000.]

Respiratory protective equipment
135 (1) An employer shall provide
(a) appropriate respiratory protective equipment to a person who enters a confined space where the concentration of a chemical substance or a mixture of chemical substances in a confined space is hazardous to the health or safety of a person; and
Clause 135(1)(a) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(b) positive pressure respiratory protective equipment to a person who enters a confined space where the concentration of oxygen is less than 19.5 %.
Clause 135(1)(b) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
(2) An employer shall ensure that the respiratory protective equipment referred to in clause (1)(b)
(a) has an air line and an independent 5-minute supply of air; or
(b) is self-contained and equipped with an audible alarm that sounds when the air supply has diminished to
(i) 20% of the capacity of the unit, or
(ii) a 5-minute reserve.
Subsection 135(2) amended: O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000.
[Note: Section 135 and amendments to it made by O.I.C. 2000-130, N.S. Reg. 52/2000 effective November 1, 2000.]

Hazard of electrical shock
136 Where there is a hazard of electrical shock in a confined space, an employer shall ensure that electrical equipment taken into the confined space is
(a) battery operated;
(b) double insulated;
(c) bonded to ground and not exceeding 30 v and 100 volt-amps; or
(d) equipped with a ground fault circuit interrupter of the Class A type that complies with CSA standard C22.1-98, “Canadian Electrical Code Part 1 (18th edition), Safety Standard for Electrical Installations” and that is tested before each use.
[Note: Section 136 effective November 1, 2000.] 137 An employer shall ensure that adequate warning signs and barricades are installed or erected to protect a person working as part of a confined space entry, if a hazard from any form of traffic exists.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following is © Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2009 – 2009

ONTARIO REGULATION 632/05
CONFINED SPACES

Last amendment: O. Reg. 492/09.

CONTENTS
1. In this Regulation,
“acceptable atmospheric levels” means that,
(a) the atmospheric concentration of any explosive or flammable gas or vapour is less than,
(i) 25 per cent of its lower explosive limit, if paragraph 1 of subsection 19 (4) applies,
(ii) 10 per cent of its lower explosive limit, if paragraph 2 of subsection 19 (4) applies,
(iii) 5 per cent of its lower explosive limit, if paragraph 3 of subsection 19 (4) applies,
(b) the oxygen content of the atmosphere is at least 19.5 per cent but not more than 23 per cent by volume, and
(c) the exposure to atmospheric contaminants does not exceed any applicable level set out in a regulation made under the Act and listed in Table 1; (“niveaux atmosphériques acceptables”)
Note: On July 1, 2010, clause (c) is revoked and the following substituted:
(c) the exposure to atmospheric contaminants does not exceed any applicable limit set out in Regulation 833 of the Revised Regulations of Ontario, 1990 (Control of Exposure to Biological or Chemical Agents) made under the Act or Ontario Regulation 490/09 (Designated Substances) made under the Act;
See: O. Reg. 492/09, ss. 1, 3.
“adequate”, when used in relation to a procedure, plan, material, device, object or thing, means that it is,
(a) sufficient for both its intended and its actual use, and
(b) sufficient to protect a worker from occupational illness or occupational injury; (“adéquat”)
“adequately” has a meaning that corresponds to the meaning of “adequate”; (“adéquatement”)
“assessment” means an assessment of hazards with respect to one or more confined spaces in a workplace, as described in section 6; (“évaluation”)
“atmospheric hazards” means,
(a) the accumulation of flammable, combustible or explosive agents,
(b) an oxygen content in the atmosphere that is less than 19.5 per cent or more than 23 per cent by volume, or
(c) the accumulation of atmospheric contaminants, including gases, vapours, fumes, dusts or mists, that could,
(i) result in acute health effects that pose an immediate threat to life, or
(ii) interfere with a person’s ability to escape unaided from a confined space; (“risque atmosphérique”)
“cold work” means work that is not capable of producing a source of ignition; (“travail à froid”)
“confined space” means a fully or partially enclosed space,
(a) that is not both designed and constructed for continuous human occupancy, and
(b) in which atmospheric hazards may occur because of its construction, location or contents or because of work that is done in it; (“espace clos”)
“emergency work” means work performed in connection with an unforeseen event that involves an imminent danger to the life, health or safety of any person; (“travail d’urgence”)
“hot work” means work that is capable of producing a source of ignition; (“travail à chaud”)
“lead employer” means an employer who contracts for the services of one or more other employers or independent contractors in relation to one or more confined spaces that are located,
(a) in the lead employer’s own workplace, or
(b) in another employer’s workplace; (“employeur principal”)
“plan” means a plan for one or more confined spaces in a workplace, as described in section 7; (“plan”)
“program” means a program for one or more confined spaces in a workplace, as described in section 5; (“programme”)
“purging” means displacing contaminants from a confined space; (“purge”)
“related work” means work that is performed near a confined space in direct support of work inside the confined space. (“travail connexe”) O. Reg. 632/05, s. 1.

Application
2. Subject to section 3, this Regulation applies to all workplaces to which the Occupational Health and Safety Act applies. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 2.

Exceptions
3. (1) This Regulation does not apply to,
(a) work performed underwater by a diver during a diving operation as defined in Ontario Regulation 629/94 (Diving Operations) made under the Act;
(b) work or workplaces governed by,
(i) Regulation 851 of the Revised Regulations of Ontario, 1990 (Industrial Establishments) made under the Act,
(ii) Regulation 854 of the Revised Regulations of Ontario, 1990 (Mines and Mining Plants) made under the Act,
(iii) Ontario Regulation 213/91 (Construction Projects) made under the Act, or
(iv) Ontario Regulation 67/93 (Health Care and Residential Facilities) made under the Act; or
(c) farming operations. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 3 (1).
(2) Sections 4 to 7 and 9 to 21 of this Regulation do not apply to emergency work performed by,
(a) a firefighter as defined in subsection 1 (1) of the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997; or
(b) a person who,
(i) holds a certificate under the Technical Standards and Safety Act, 2000 designating him or her as a gas technician, and
(ii) is working under the direction of a fire department, as defined in the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 3 (2); O. Reg. 23/09, s. 1.
(3) A worker described in subsection (2) who performs emergency work shall be adequately protected by,
(a) personal protective equipment, clothing and devices provided by the worker’s employer;
(b) training under section 8 provided by that employer; and
(c) written procedures and other measures developed by that employer. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 3 (3).

Confined spaces with multi-employer involvement
4. (1) This section applies if the workers of more than one employer perform work in the same confined space or related work with respect to the same confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 4 (1).
(2) Before any worker enters the confined space or begins related work with respect to the confined space, the lead employer shall prepare a co-ordination document to ensure that the duties imposed on employers by sections 5 to 7, 9 to 12 and 14 to 20 are performed in a way that protects the health and safety of all workers who perform work in the confined space or related work with respect to the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 4 (2).
(3) Without restricting the generality of subsection (2), the co-ordination document may provide for the performance of a duty or duties referred to in that subsection by one or more employers on behalf of one or more other employers, with respect to some or all of the workers. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 4 (3).
(4) A copy of the co-ordination document shall be provided to,
(a) each employer of workers who perform work in the same confined space or related work with respect to the same confined space; and
(b) the joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative, if any, for each employer of workers who perform work in the same confined space or related work with respect to the same confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 4 (4).

Program
5. (1) If an employer’s workplace includes a confined space that workers may enter to perform work, the employer shall ensure that a written program for the confined space is developed and maintained in accordance with this Regulation before a worker enters the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 5 (1).
(2) The program may apply to one or more confined spaces. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 5 (2).
(3) The program shall be developed and maintained in consultation with the joint health and safety committee or the health and safety representative, if any. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 5 (3).
(4) The program shall be adequate and shall provide for,
(a) a method for recognizing each confined space to which the program applies;
(b) a method for assessing the hazards to which workers may be exposed, in accordance with section 6;
(c) a method for the development of one or more plans, in accordance with section 7;
(d) a method for general training of workers, in accordance with section 8; and
(e) an entry permit system that sets out the measures and procedures to be followed when work is to be performed in a confined space to which the program applies. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 5 (4).
(5) The employer shall provide a copy of the program to the joint health and safety committee or the health and safety representative, if any. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 5 (5).
(6) The employer shall ensure that a copy of the program is available to,
(a) any other employer of workers who perform work to which the program relates; and
(b) every worker who performs work to which the program relates, if the workplace has no joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 5 (6).

Assessment
6. (1) Before any worker enters a confined space, the employer shall ensure that an adequate assessment of the hazards related to the confined space has been carried out. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (1).
(2) The assessment shall be recorded in writing and shall consider, with respect to each confined space,
(a) the hazards that may exist due to the design, construction, location, use or contents of the confined space; and
(b) the hazards that may develop while work is done inside the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (2).
(3) The record of the assessment may be incorporated into an entry permit under section 10. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (3).
(4) If two or more confined spaces are of similar construction and present the same hazards, their assessments may be recorded in a single document, but each confined space shall be clearly identified in the assessment. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (4).
(5) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to carry out the assessment and shall maintain a record containing details of the person’s knowledge, training and experience. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (5).
(6) The assessment shall contain the name of the person who carries out the assessment. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (6).
(7) The person shall sign and date the assessment and provide it to the employer. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (7).
(8) On request, the employer shall provide copies of the assessment and of the record mentioned in subsection (5) to,
(a) the joint health and safety committee or the health and safety representative, if any; or
(b) every worker who performs work to which the assessment relates, if the workplace has no joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (8).
(9) The employer shall ensure that the assessment is reviewed as often as is necessary to ensure that the relevant plan remains adequate. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 6 (9).

Plan
7. (1) Before any worker enters a confined space, the employer shall ensure that an adequate written plan, including procedures for the control of hazards identified in the assessment, has been developed and implemented by a competent person for the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 7 (1).
(2) The plan may be incorporated into an entry permit under section 10. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 7 (2).
(3) The plan shall contain provisions for,
(a) the duties of workers;
(b) co-ordination in accordance with section 4, if applicable;
(c) on-site rescue procedures, in accordance with section 11;
(d) rescue equipment and methods of communication, in accordance with section 12;
(e) personal protective equipment, clothing and devices, in accordance with section 13;
(f) isolation of energy and control of materials movement, in accordance with section 14;
(g) attendants, in accordance with section 15;
(h) adequate means for entering and exiting, in accordance with section 16;
(i) atmospheric testing, in accordance with section 18;
(j) adequate procedures for working in the presence of explosive or flammable substances, in accordance with section 19; and
(k) ventilation and purging, in accordance with section 20. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 7 (3).
(4) One plan may deal with two or more confined spaces that are of similar construction and present the same hazards as identified by the assessment. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 7 (4).
(5) The employer shall ensure that the plan is reviewed as often as is necessary to ensure that it remains adequate. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 7 (5).

Hazard recognition and other general training
8. (1) Every worker who enters a confined space or who performs related work shall be given adequate training for safe work practices for working in confined spaces and for performing related work, including training in the recognition of hazards associated with confined spaces. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (1).
(2) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to conduct the training. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (2).
(3) The employer shall ensure that training under this section is developed in consultation with the joint health and safety committee or the health and safety representative, if any. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (3).
(4) The employer shall ensure that training under this section is reviewed, in consultation with the joint health and safety committee or the health and safety representative, if any, whenever there is a change in circumstances that may affect the safety of a worker who enters a confined space in the workplace, and in any case at least once annually. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (4).
(5) The employer shall maintain up-to-date written records showing who provided and who received training under this section, the nature of the training and the date when it was provided. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (5).
(6) The records may be incorporated into an entry permit under section 10. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (6).
(7) Training under this section may be combined with training under section 9. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 8 (7).

Plan-specific training
9. (1) The employer shall ensure that every worker who enters a confined space or who performs related work,
(a) receives adequate training, in accordance with the relevant plan, to work safely and properly; and
(b) follows the plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 9 (1).
(2) The employer shall maintain up-to-date written records showing who provided and who received training under this section, and the date when it was provided. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 9 (2).
(3) The records may be incorporated into an entry permit under section 10. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 9 (3).
(4) Training under this section may be combined with training under section 8. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 9 (4).

Entry permits
10. (1) The employer shall ensure that a separate entry permit is issued each time work is to be performed in a confined space, before any worker enters the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 10 (1).
(2) An entry permit shall be adequate and shall include at least the following:
1. The location of the confined space.
2. A description of the work to be performed there.
3. A description of the hazards and the corresponding control measures.
4. The time period for which the entry permit applies.
5. The name of the attendant described in section 15.
6. A record of each worker’s entries and exits.
7. A list of the equipment required for entry and rescue, and verification that the equipment is in good working order.
8. Results obtained in atmospheric testing under section 18.
9. If the work to be performed in the confined space includes hot work, adequate provisions for the hot work and corresponding control measures. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 10 (2).
(3) Before each shift, a competent person shall verify that the entry permit complies with the relevant plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 10 (3).
(4) The employer shall ensure that the entry permit, during the time period for which it applies, is readily available to every person who enters the confined space and to every person who performs related work with respect to the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 10 (4).

On-site rescue procedures
11. (1) The employer shall ensure that no worker enters or remains in a confined space unless, in accordance with the relevant plan, adequate written on-site rescue procedures that apply to the confined space have been developed and are ready for immediate implementation. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 11 (1).
(2) Before a worker enters a confined space, the employer shall ensure that an adequate number of persons trained in the matters listed in subsection (3) are available for immediate implementation of the on-site rescue procedures mentioned in subsection (1). O. Reg. 632/05, s. 11 (2).
(3) The persons shall be trained in,
(a) the on-site rescue procedures mentioned in subsection (1);
(b) first aid and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation; and
(c) the use of the rescue equipment required in accordance with the relevant plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 11 (3).

Rescue equipment and methods of communication
12. (1) The employer shall ensure that the rescue equipment identified in the relevant plan is,
(a) readily available to effect a rescue in the confined space;
(b) appropriate for entry into the confined space; and
(c) inspected as often as is necessary to ensure it is in good working order, by a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience who is appointed by the employer. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 12 (1).
(2) The inspection under clause (1) (c) shall be recorded in writing by the person, and the record of the inspection may be incorporated into the entry permit under section 10. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 12 (2).
(3) The employer shall establish methods of communication that are appropriate for the hazards identified in the relevant assessment, and shall make them readily available for workers to communicate with the attendant described in section 15. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 12 (3).

Personal protective equipment, clothing and devices
13. The employer shall ensure that each worker who enters a confined space is provided with adequate personal protective equipment, clothing and devices, in accordance with the relevant plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 13.

Isolation of energy and control of materials movement
14. The employer shall, in accordance with the relevant plan, ensure that each worker entering a confined space is adequately protected,
(a) against the release of hazardous substances into the confined space,
(i) by blanking or disconnecting piping, or
(ii) if compliance with subclause (i) is not practical in the circumstances for technical reasons, by other adequate means;
(b) against contact with electrical energy inside the confined space that could endanger the worker,
(i) by disconnecting, de-energizing, locking out and tagging the source of electrical energy, or
(ii) if compliance with subclause (i) is not practical in the circumstances for technical reasons, by other adequate means;
(c) against contact with moving parts of equipment inside the confined space that could endanger the worker,
(i) by disconnecting the equipment from its power source, de-energizing the equipment, locking it out and tagging it, or
(ii) if compliance with subclause (i) is not practical in the circumstances for technical reasons, by immobilizing the equipment by blocking or other adequate means; and
(d) against drowning, engulfment, entrapment, suffocation and other hazards from free-flowing material, by adequate means. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 14; O. Reg. 23/09, s. 2.

Attendant
15. (1) Whenever a worker is to enter a confined space, the employer shall ensure that an attendant,
(a) is assigned;
(b) is stationed outside and near,
(i) the entrance to the confined space, or
(ii) if there are two or more entrances, the one that will best allow the attendant to perform his or her duties under subsection (2);
(c) is in constant communication with all workers inside the confined space, using the means of communication described in the relevant plan; and
(d) is provided with a device for summoning an adequate rescue response. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 15 (1).
(2) The attendant shall not enter the confined space at any time and shall, in accordance with the relevant plan,
(a) monitor the safety of the worker inside;
(b) provide assistance to him or her; and
(c) summon an adequate rescue response if required. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 15 (2).

Means for entering and exiting
16. An adequate means for entering and exiting shall be provided for all workers who enter a confined space, in accordance with the relevant plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 16.
Preventing unauthorized entry
17. If there is a possibility of unauthorized entry into a confined space, the employer shall ensure that each entrance to the confined space,
(a) is adequately secured against unauthorized entry; or
(b) has been provided with adequate barricades, adequate warning signs regarding unauthorized entry, or both. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 17.

Atmospheric testing
18. (1) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to perform adequate tests as often as necessary before and while a worker is in a confined space to ensure that acceptable atmospheric levels are maintained in the confined space in accordance with the relevant plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (1).
(2) If the confined space has been both unoccupied and unattended, tests shall be performed before a worker enters or re-enters. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (2).
(3) The person performing the tests shall use calibrated instruments that are in good working order and are appropriate for the hazards identified in the relevant assessment. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (3).
(4) The employer shall ensure that the results of every sample of a test are recorded, subject to subsection (5). O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (4).
(5) If the tests are performed using continuous monitoring, the employer shall ensure that test results are recorded at adequate intervals. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (5).
(6) The tests shall be performed in a manner that does not endanger the health or safety of the person performing them. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (6).
(7) In this section,
“sample” means an individual reading of the composition of the atmosphere in the confined space; (“prélèvement”)
“test” means a collection of samples. (“essai”) O. Reg. 632/05, s. 18 (7).

Explosive and flammable substances
19. (1) This section applies only in respect of atmospheric hazards described in clause (a) of the definition of “atmospheric hazards” in section 1. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 19 (1).
(2) The employer shall ensure that this section is complied with, by ventilation, purging, rendering the atmosphere inert or other adequate means, in accordance with the relevant plan. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 19 (2).
(3) The employer shall ensure that no worker enters or remains in a confined space that contains or is likely to contain an airborne combustible dust or mist whose atmospheric concentration may create a hazard of explosion. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 19 (3).
(4) The employer shall ensure that no worker enters or remains in a confined space that contains or is likely to contain an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, unless one of the following applies:
1. The worker is performing only inspection work that does not produce a source of ignition. In the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration is less than 25 per cent of its lower explosive limit, as determined by a combustible gas instrument.
2. The worker is performing only cold work. In the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration is less than 10 per cent of its lower explosive limit, as determined by a combustible gas instrument.
3. The worker is performing hot work. All the following conditions are satisfied:
i. In the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration is less than 5 per cent of its lower explosive limit, as determined by a combustible gas instrument.
ii. The atmosphere in the confined space does not contain, and is not likely to contain while a worker is inside, an oxygen content greater than 23 per cent by volume.
iii. The atmosphere in the confined space is monitored continuously.
iv. The entry permit includes adequate provisions for hot work and corresponding control measures.
v. An adequate warning system and exit procedure are provided to ensure that workers have adequate warning and are able to exit the confined space safely if either or both of the following occur:
A. In the case of an explosive or flammable gas or vapour, the atmospheric concentration exceeds 5 per cent of its lower explosive limit.
B. The oxygen content of the atmosphere exceeds 23 per cent by volume. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 19 (4); O. Reg. 23/09, s. 3.
(5) Subsections (3) and (4) do not apply if,
(a) the atmosphere in the confined space,
(i) has been rendered inert by adding an inert gas, and
(ii) is monitored continuously to ensure that it remains inert; and
(b) a worker entering the confined space uses,
(i) adequate respiratory protective equipment,
(ii) adequate equipment to allow persons outside the confined space to locate and rescue the worker if necessary, and
(iii) such other equipment as is necessary to ensure the worker’s safety. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 19 (5).
(6) The equipment mentioned in subclauses (5) (b) (i), (ii) and (iii) shall be inspected by a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience, appointed by the employer, and shall be in good working order before the worker enters the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 19 (6).

Ventilation and purging
20. (1) This section applies only in respect of atmospheric hazards described in clause (b) or (c) of the definition of “atmospheric hazards” in section 1. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 20 (1).
(2) If atmospheric hazards exist or are likely to exist in a confined space, the confined space shall be purged, ventilated or both, before any worker enters it, to ensure that acceptable atmospheric levels are maintained in the confined space while any worker is inside. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 20 (2).
(3) If mechanical ventilation is required to maintain acceptable atmospheric levels, an adequate warning system and exit procedure shall also be provided to ensure that workers have adequate warning of ventilation failure and are able to exit the confined space safely. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 20 (3).
(4) If compliance with subsection (2) is not practical in the circumstances for technical reasons,
(a) compliance with subsection (3) is not required; and
(b) a worker entering the confined space shall use,
(i) adequate respiratory protective equipment,
(ii) adequate equipment to allow persons outside the confined space to locate and rescue the worker if necessary, and
(iii) such other equipment as is necessary to ensure the worker’s safety. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 20 (4).
(5) The equipment mentioned in subclauses (4) (b) (i), (ii) and (iii) shall be inspected by a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience, appointed by the employer, and shall be in good working order before the worker enters the confined space. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 20 (5).

Records
21. (1) The employer shall retain every assessment, plan, co-ordination document under section 4, record of training under subsection 8 (5) or 9 (2), entry permit under section 10, record of an inspection under subsection 12 (2)and record of a test under section 18, including records of each sample, for the longer of the following periods:
1. One year after the document is created.
2. The period that is necessary to ensure that at least the two most recent records of each kind that relate to a particular confined space are retained. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 21 (1).
(2) If section 4 applies, the documents described in subsection (1) shall be retained by the employer responsible for creating them. O. Reg. 632/05, s. 21 (2).
22. Omitted (provides for coming into force of provisions of the English version of this Regulation). O. Reg. 632/05, s. 22.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following material is © Government of Prince Edward Island

Cap. O-1.01 Occupational Health and Safety Act21

PART 13

CONFINED SPACE

13.1 In this Part, “confined space” means an enclosed or partially
enclosed space
(a) not designed or intended for human occupancy;
(b) with restricted access or exit; and
(c) that is or may become hazardous to a person entering it because
of its design, construction, location, atmosphere or the materials or
substances in it or other conditions,
and includes any bin, tank, tanker, tunnel, silo, sewer, vault, chamber,
pipeline, pit, vessel, vat and flue. (EC180/87; 652/07)

13.2 The employer shall ensure that an employee enters a confined space
only where
(a) there is a safe method of access and egress from all parts of the
confined space;
(b) mechanical equipment in the confined space is
(i) disconnected from its power source, and
(ii) locked out;
(c) prior to entry
(i) piping containing hazardous substances or substances under
pressure or so located as to allow hazardous substances to enter
such space is disconnected, blanked or blinded off, or
(ii) where it is impossible to employ blanks or blinds, as in
welded piping systems, written work procedures are developed in
consultation with (the Division, committee, or representative) and
implemented to ensure equivalent protection to all employees
exposed to the hazard but the closing of a valve on any line is not
an acceptable substitute for blanking or blinding;
(d) the confined space is tested and evaluated by a competent
person, properly equipped with personal protective equipment, who
(i) used an approved calibrated instrument that has been
functionally tested,
(ii) records the results of each test in a permanent record which is
available to an officer,
(iii) certifies in writing in a permanent record that the confined
space is free from hazard, and
(iv) specifies the procedures to be followed to ensure that the
space remains free of hazard;
(e) ground fault circuit interrupters are used for electrical equipment
taken into wet or solidly grounded confined spaces unless battery
operated or safety low voltage equipment is used; and
Defined, “confined space”
Conditions for entry of confined space
(f) training in emergency procedures is provided for employees
assigned to a confined space entry job including the employee
stationed outside the confined space. (EC180/87)

13.3 The employer shall ensure that a confined space in which there
exists or is likely to exist
(a) a hazardous accumulation of gas, vapour, dust, mist, smoke or
fumes; or
(b) an oxygen content of less than 19.5% or more than 23% at
atmospheric pressure
is entered only when
(c) the requirements of sections 13.2 and 13.5(a) are complied with;
(d) the space is purged and ventilated to provide a safe atmosphere;
and
(e) provisions for continuous or periodic monitoring have been
established to ensure that the hazardous condition does not recur;
(f) another employee is stationed outside the confined space;
(g) the employee entering the space is using such other equipment as
is necessary to ensure his safety;
(h) suitable arrangements have been made to remove the employee
from the confined space should it be required;
(i) a person adequately trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation is
conveniently available;
(j) the employee entering is using a CSA approved breathing
apparatus;
(k) the employee entering the space is wearing an approved safety
harness with attached life line that will permit that employee to be
removed from the space; if more than one employee is working in
the space, steps have been taken to ensure that the life lines do not
become entangled;
(l) another employee is stationed outside the confined space and in
addition, equipment and persons are available to ensure immediate
removal of employees within the space;
(m) all safety equipment to be used in the confined space has been
inspected by a competent person and is in good working order.
(EC180/87)

13.4 (1) Subject to subsection (2), where the gas or vapour in a confined
space is or is likely to be explosive or flammable, the employer shall
ensure that a confined space is entered only where
(a) the concentration of the gas or vapour in a confined space does
not or is not likely to exceed 50% of the lower explosive limit of the
gas or vapour; and
(b) the only work to be performed is that of cleaning or inspecting
and of such a nature that it does not create any sources of ignition.
Hazardous confined space, conditions for entry Confined space containing
flammable vapours
(2) Cold work may be performed in a confined space which contains or
is likely to contain an explosive or flammable gas or vapour where the
concentration does not and is not likely to exceed 10% of the lower
explosive limit of the gas or vapour. (EC180/87)

13.5 The employer shall ensure that when an employee enters a confined
space, another employee
(a) remains in attendance outside the space at all times whenever the
space is occupied and visually checks or is in constant voice
communication with the employee in the confined space;
(b) is capable of raising an alarm in order to summon additional
assistance;
(c) does not enter the space unless relieved by another employee;
(d) ensures that appropriate equipment is stationed outside the space
to enable quick and safe entry to the space, should such an entry be
required; and
(e) is knowledgeable in the correct use of the emergency retrieval
system procedures. (EC180/87)

13.6 The employer shall ensure that warning signs and barricades are
installed to protect employees in a confined space where a hazard from
any form of traffic exists. (EC180/87)

13.7 An employee shall not enter a confined space unless the
requirements of this Part have been complied with. (EC180/87)

PART 14

BINS AND HOPPERS

14.1 Employees shall be provided with and shall wear approved safety
belts with life line attached and properly anchored when working at
elevations greater than 3 m (10 ft.) above grade where adequate working
platforms or stagings are not provided. (EC180/87)

14.2 Employees shall be provided with and shall wear approved safety
harnesses with life line attached and properly anchored when entering
bins, hoppers, chambers or vessels where there is a danger of being
trapped or buried by the movement of material, or where there is a
danger of falling into pits, shafts or moving machinery. (EC180/87)

14.3 The employer shall ensure that wherever possible suitable walks or
working platforms with standard handrails shall be installed for the
protection of employees in or on such bins; and these bins shall be
provided with adequate exits and with practical safety devices which best
fit the different types of bins. (EC180/87)

14.4 When employees are required to work in bins, hoppers, chambers or
vessels where there is danger of being overcome by contaminated air or
lack of oxygen or where there is danger of being buried by movement of
material, an employee shall be stationed in a position where he can
readily effect the rescue of the employee exposed to the hazardous
condition.
— Ropes for life lines shall be as specified in C.S.A. Standard Z259.2.
— Life lines shall be connected for use so that there will be the least
practicable amount of slack line in order to limit the free fall of the
employee.
— No more than one employee shall be attached to one life line.
(EC180/87)

14.5 This Part does not apply when a net or equivalent protection has
been provided for steel erectors or similar tradesmen who are
experienced in working at heights and where the use of a safety belt or
life line may produce an additional hazard. (EC180/87)

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following is © Gouvernement du Québec, 2009

c. S-2.1, r.19.01

Regulation Respecting Occupational Health and Safety

An Act respecting occupational health and safety

R.S.Q., c. S-2.1, s. 223. 1st par. subpar. (1), (3), (4), (7) to (16), (18) to (21.1), (41) and (42), 2nd par. and 3rd par

Definitions: In this regulation, the following words and expressions mean:

“enclosed area”: any area that is completely or partially enclosed, especially a reservoir, a silo, a vat, a hopper, a chamber, a vault, a tank, a sewer including a ditch and a temporary manure storage ditch, a pipe, a chimney, an access shaft, a truck or freight car tank, which has the following inherent conditions:

(1) which is not designed for human occupation, nor intended to be, but may occasionally be occupied for the performance of work;

(2) access to which can only be had by a restricted entrance/exit;

(3) which can represent a risk for the health and safety of anyone who enters, owing to any one of the following factors:

(a) its design, construction or location, except for the entrance/exit provided for in subsection (2);

(b) its atmosphere or insufficiency of natural or mechanical ventilation;

(c) the materials or substances that it contains;

(d) or other related hazards;

DIVISION XXVI
WORKING IN AN ENCLOSED AREA

297. Definitions: For the purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply :

«qualified person»: a person who, by reason of his knowledge, his training or his experience, is able to identify, assess and control the dangers relating to an enclosed area ;

«hot work»: any work that requires the use of a flame or that can produce an ignition source.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 297.

298. Qualified workers: Only those workers who have the knowledge, training or experience required to do work in an enclosed area are qualified to perform work there.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 298.

299. Entry prohibited: Entry to an enclosed area is prohibited for any person who is not assigned to do work, to perform a task or to carry out a rescue there.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 299.

300. Gathering information before work: Before any work or task is carried out in an enclosed area, the following information shall be available, in writing, on the work premises:

(1) information on the specific dangers associated with the enclosed area and that concern :

(a) the prevailing internal atmosphere, namely the concentration of oxygen, inflammable gases and vapours, combustible or explosive dusts as well as the categories of contaminants likely to be present in this enclosed area or nearby;

(b) the fact that the natural or mechanical ventilation is insufficient;

(c) the materials that are present there and that can cause the worker to sink, to be buried or to drown, such as sand, grain or a liquid;

(d) the interior configuration;

(e) energies such as electricity, moving mechanical parts, heat stress, noise and hydraulic energy;

(f) ignition sources such as open flames, lighting, welding and cutting, static electricity or sparks;

(g) any other special circumstances such as the presence of rodents or insects;

(2) the prevention measures that should be taken to protect the health and to ensure the safety and well-being of workers, and in particular those concerning:

(a) safe methods and techniques for carrying out the work;

(b) appropriate and necessary work equipment to perform the work;

(c) the personal or collective protective means and equipment that the worker shall use when performing his work;

(d) the rescue procedures and equipment stipulated in section 309.

The information referred to in subparagraph 1 of the first paragraph shall be collected by a qualified person.

The precautionary measures referred to in subparagraph 2 of the first paragraph shall be drafted by a qualified person and implemented.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 300.

301. Information provided to workers prior to performing work : Information referred to in subparagraphs 1 and 2 of the first paragraph of section 300 shall be conveyed and explained to all workers before they enter an enclosed area ; this information shall be given by someone who is capable of adequately informing the workers on how to perform the work safely.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 301.

302. Ventilation : Except in cases where the safety of workers is ensured in compliance with subparagraph 3 of section 303, no worker may enter or be present in an enclosed area unless the latter is ventilated either by natural or mechanical means such that the following atmospheric conditions are maintained

(1) the concentration of oxygen shall be greater than or equal to 19,5 % and less than or equal to 23%;

(2) the concentration of inflammable gases or vapours shall be less than or equal to 10 % of the lower explosion limit;

(3) the concentration of one or more contaminants referred to under the sub- subparagraph of subparagraph 1 of the first paragraph of section 300 shall not exceed the standards provided in Schedule I for these contaminants;

If it proves impossible by ventilating the enclosed area to maintain an internal atmosphere in compliance with the standards provided under subparagraphs 1 and 3 of the first paragraph, a worker may only enter or be present in this area if he wears the respiratory protective equipment specified in section 45 and if the internal atmosphere of this enclosed area complies with subparagraph 2 of the first paragraph.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 302.

303. Combustible dusts: No worker may enter or be present in an enclosed area where there are combustible dusts posing a risk of fire or explosion unless the safety of the worker is ensured by the implementation of one of the following procedures:

(1) by maintaining and controlling such dusts at a safe level;

(2) by controlling existing ignition sources in the enclosed area associated with the training of the worker, by a qualified person, on the methods and techniques to be used for performing the work safely;

(3) by making the atmosphere in the enclosed area inert, associated with the worker wearing the respiratory protective equipment specified in section 45 and the training of the latter in compliance with subparagraph 2.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 303.

304. Hot work: Wherever hot work is performed in an enclosed area, a worker may only enter or be present therein if the following conditions are met:

(1) the conditions provided under sections 302 and 303;

(2) a continuous monitoring of the concentration of inflammable gases and vapours found therein is carried out by a direct reading instrument equipped with an alarm.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 304.

305. Special measures: Unless special precautionary measures are taken by the employer, no worker may enter or be present in an enclosed area when a qualified person has detected the presence of a contaminant, other than those referred to under section 300 and whose concentration requires the taking of such measures.

These measures include training devised by a qualified person and dealing with methods and techniques that shall be employed by the worker to carry out his work safely in this enclosed area. They can also provide, where necessary, for the use of equipment that is appropriate for this type of work as well as the other personal and collective protective means and equipment that the worker must use.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 305.

306. Method and frequency of readings: Readings of the oxygen concentration in the enclosed area as well as of inflammable gases and vapours and contaminants measurable by direct reading and likely to be present in the enclosed area or nearby shall be made:

(1) before workers enter the enclosed area and, subsequently, on a continuous or periodic basis, according to the evaluation of the danger made by a qualified person;

(2) if circumstances modify the internal atmosphere of the enclosed area and result in the evacuation of workers due to the fact that the quality of the air no longer complies with the standards set out in subparagraphs 1 to 3 of the first paragraph of section 302;

(3) if the workers leave the enclosed area and the work site, even momentarily, unless continuous monitoring is maintained.

The readings shall be taken in such a manner as to obtain an accuracy equivalent to that obtained following the methods described in section 44 or, when these measures cannot be applied, by following another recognized method.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 306; O.C. 1120-2006, s. 7.

307. Register of readings: The results of the readings made under section 306 shall be recorded by the employer in a register, on the work premises, identifying the enclosed area in question.

However, in the case where the readings are made using continuous reading instruments equipped with alarms that sound when the air quality does not meet the standards set out in subparagraphs 1 to 3 of the first paragraph of section 302, the readings shall only be recorded in the register if the alarm goes off.

Only those entries in the register that do not comply with the standards set out in subparagraphs 1 to 2 of the first paragraph of section 302 shall be kept for a period of at least 5 years.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 307.

308. Supervision: When a worker is present in an enclosed area, another person posted and having the skills and information to supervise the worker shall remain in visual contact, hearing contact or contact by any other means with the worker to initiate, if necessary, the rescue procedures quickly.

The person responsible for the supervision shall remain outside the enclosed area.
O.C. 885-2001, s. 308.

309. Rescue procedure: A rescue procedure making it possible to rapidly assist any worker performing work in an enclosed area shall be established and tested.

Such a procedure shall be implemented as soon as any situation so requires.

This procedure shall provide for the necessary rescue equipment. It may also make provision for a team of rescuers, an evacuation plan, alarm and communications devices, personal protective equipment, safety harnesses, lifelines, a first aid kit with emergency equipment as well as recovery equipment.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 309.

310. Unobstructed access: The personal or collective protective means or equipment used by workers shall not obstruct them when entering or leaving an enclosed area.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 310.

311. Precautions regarding free flow materials: No person may enter an enclosed area used to store free flow materials, when filling or emptying is taking place and when precautions have not been taken to prevent an accidental resumption of the operations.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 311; O.C. 1120-2006, s. 8.

312. Safety harness: When it is essential that workers enter an enclosed area where free flow materials are stored, each worker entering such an area shall wear a safety harness.

The safety harness shall be attached to a lifeline that is as short as possible and that is firmly attached outside the enclosed area.

O.C. 885-2001, s. 312.

This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.

The following is Copyright©2009 The Queen’s Printer, Saskatchewan

The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996

PART XVIII

Confined Space Entry

Interpretation

266 In this Part:
(a) “confined space” means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that:
(i) is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy, except
for the purpose of performing work; and
(ii) has restricted means of entrance and exit;
(b) “hazardous confined space” means a confined space that is or may
become hazardous to a worker entering the confined space due to:
(i) the design, construction or atmosphere of the confined space;
(ii) the materials or substances in the confined space;
(iii) the work activities or processes used in the confined space; or
(iv) any other conditions relating to the confined space;
(c) “isolate” means to physically interrupt or disconnect pipes, lines and
sources of energy from a confined space.

Identification of confined spaces, hazards, etc.
267 Where a worker may be required or permitted to work in a confined space, an employer, in consultation with the committee, shall identify:
(a) types of confined spaces at the place of employment that a worker may be
required or permitted to enter;
(b) types of hazards that are or may be present at each confined space;
(c) alternative means to perform the work to be performed in a confined
space that will not require the worker to enter the confined space; and
(d) alterations to the physical characteristics of the confined spaces that
may be necessary to ensure safe entrance to and exit from all accessible parts
of each confined space.

Avoidance of entry into hazardous confined space

268(1) Where reasonably practicable, an employer shall use an alternative means to perform work that will not require a worker to enter a hazardous confined space.
(2) An employer shall take all reasonably practicable steps to prevent any
unauthorized entry into the confined space.

Requirements before confined space is entered

269(1) Where a worker will be required or permitted to work in a confined space,
an employer, contractor or owner shall, before requiring or permitting the worker to enter the confined space:
(a) ensure that there is a safe entrance to and exit from all accessible parts
of the confined space; and
(b) make all practicable alterations to the physical characteristics of the
confined space necessary to ensure a safe entrance to and exit from all
accessible parts of the confined space.
(2) In making alterations pursuant to clause (1)(b), an employer shall ensure that
the structural integrity of the confined space is maintained.

Requirements before hazardous confined space is entered

270(1) Before a worker is required or permitted to enter a confined space, an
employer shall appoint a competent person:
(a) to assess the hazards;
(b) where a hazardous atmosphere has been identified, to test the atmosphere
of the confined space for:
(i) oxygen enrichment or deficiency;
(ii) the presence of flammable or explosive substances; and
(iii) the presence and hazardous concentration of airborne chemical
substances; and
(c) to determine whether:
(i) work activities or processes will result in the release of toxic,
flammable or explosive concentrations of any substances during the
worker’s occupation of the confined space;
(ii) measures have been taken to ensure that a worker will not drown or
become entrapped in any liquid or free-flowing solid present in the
confined space;
(iii) the entry of any liquid, free-flowing solid or hazardous substance
into the confined space in a quantity that could endanger the health or
safety of the worker has been prevented;
(iv) all energy sources that present a hazard to a worker entering into,
exiting from or occupying the confined space have been locked out, with
the energy sources being put in a zero energy state;
(v) any hazards from biological substances are present in the confined
space; and
(vi) the opening for entry into and exit from the confined space is
sufficient to allow safe passage of a worker who is using personal
protective equipment required by these regulations.
(2) When testing the atmosphere of a confined space pursuant to clause (1)(b), a
competent person shall use appropriate and properly calibrated instruments that
have been tested to ensure that the instruments are capable of operating safely and effectively.
(3) A competent person who carries out the activities described in clauses (1)(a)
to (c) shall prepare a report in writing that sets out:
(a) the results of the assessment, tests and determinations;
(b) recommended special precautions and procedures to reduce the risk to a
worker that are to be followed by a worker entering into, exiting from or
occupying the confined space; and
(c) recommended personal protective equipment to be used by a worker
entering the confined space.

Notice where no hazard found

271 Where a confined space is not identified as a hazardous confined space, an
employer shall:
(a) notify a worker who is required to enter the confined space verifying that
the confined space is not hazardous;
(b) arrange for a method of communication with a worker on entry to and
exit from the confined space and at appropriate intervals while a worker is in
the confined space;
(c) prepare a procedure for the removal of a worker who has become injured
or incapacitated while in the confined space; and
(d) ensure that the ventilation in the confined space is adequate to maintain
safe atmospheric conditions.

Entry plan
272(1) Where a worker will be required or permitted to enter a hazardous
confined space, an employer, in consultation with the committee, shall develop a
hazardous confined space entry plan to ensure the health and safety of workers who enter or work in the hazardous confined space.
(2) A hazardous confined space entry plan must be in writing and must include:
(a) the tests or measurements necessary to monitor any oxygen deficiency or
enrichment or the presence and hazardous concentration of flammable or
explosive substances;
(b) the identification of any other hazards that may be present in the
hazardous confined space and may put the health or safety of workers at risk;
(c) the means, if any, of isolating the hazardous confined space;
(d) the means, if any, of ventilating the hazardous confined space;
(e) the procedures to enter, work in and exit from the hazardous confined
space safely;
(f) the availability, location and proper use of personal protective equipment;
(g) the rescue procedures to be followed, including the number and duties of
personnel and the availability, location and proper use of equipment;
(h) the means to maintain effective communication with a worker who has
entered the hazardous confined space; and
(i) the availability, location and proper use of any other equipment that a
worker may need to work safely in the hazardous confined space.
(3) An employer shall ensure that the following workers are trained in and
implement a hazardous confined space entry plan:
(a) a worker who is required or permitted to enter the hazardous confined
space;
(b) a worker who attends a worker in the hazardous confined space
pursuant to subsection 274(4) or (5);
(c) a worker who may be required or permitted to implement the rescue
procedures mentioned in clause (2)(g).
(4) An employer shall make a copy of a hazardous confined space entry plan
readily available at the entrance to the hazardous confined space.

Purging and ventilating of unsafe atmosphere

273(1) In addition to the requirements of section 369, where a concentration of a
toxic, flammable or explosive substance is present or an oxygen enrichment or
deficiency exists in a hazardous confined space, an employer shall ensure that the hazardous confined space is:
(a) purged and ventilated before a worker is allowed to enter the space, so
that:
(i) any hazard associated with a toxic, flammable or explosive substance
is reduced to the extent that is possible or eliminated; and
(ii) an oxygen content of not less than 19.5% and not more than 23% is
ensured; and
(b) continuously ventilated at all times during which the worker occupies
the hazardous confined space, to maintain a safe atmosphere.
(2) Where ventilation is used to reduce or eliminate a hazard pursuant to
subsection (1), an employer shall ensure that a competent person tests the
atmosphere to determine that the confined space is safe for entry by a worker:
(a) before a worker enters the confined space;
(b) where all workers have vacated the confined space, before any worker
re-enters the confined space;
(c) on the request of a worker who is required or permitted to enter the
confined space; and
(d) continuously where any condition in the confined space may change and
put the worker’s health or safety at risk.

Precautions where safe atmosphere not possible

274(1) Where a hazardous confined space cannot be purged and ventilated to
provide a safe atmosphere or a safe atmosphere cannot be maintained pursuant to section 273, an employer shall ensure that no work is carried on in the confined space except in accordance with the requirements of this section and section 369.
(2) An employer shall ensure that a competent person continuously monitors the
atmosphere in a hazardous confined space.
(3) An employer shall ensure that a worker is provided with and required to use a
respiratory protective device that meets the requirements of Part VII if:
(a) the airborne concentration for any substance meets or exceeds the
permissible contamination limit mentioned in clause 307(1)(a);
(b) oxygen deficiency or enrichment is detected; or
(c) the airborne concentration of any other substance may be harmful to the
worker.
(4) An employer shall ensure that a worker in a hazardous confined space is
attended by and in communication with another worker who:
(a) has been adequately trained in the rescue procedures mentioned in
clause 272(2)(g);
(b) is stationed and remains at the entrance to the confined space unless
replaced by another adequately trained worker; and
(c) is equipped with a suitable alarm to summon assistance.
(5) If entrance to a hazardous confined space is from the top:
(a) an employer shall ensure that:
(i) a worker uses a full-body harness and, where appropriate, is
attached to a lifeline;
(ii) if a lifeline is used, the lifeline is attended by another worker who is
adequately trained in the rescue procedures mentioned in
clause 272(2)(g); and
(iii) where reasonably practicable, a mechanical lifting device is
available to assist with a rescue and is located at the entry to the
confined space while a worker is in the confined space; or
(b) an employer shall ensure that an alternate method of rescue is developed
and implemented where the use of a full-body harness or lifeline would create
an additional hazard.
(6) If any flammable or explosive dusts, gases, vapours or liquids are or may be
present in a hazardous confined space, an employer shall ensure that all sources of ignition are eliminated or controlled.
(7) An employer shall ensure that:
(a) equipment necessary to rescue workers is readily available at the
entrance to the hazardous confined space and used in accordance with the
rescue procedures developed pursuant to clause 272(2)(g);
(b) the holder of a class A qualification in first aid is available to provide
immediate first aid; and
(c) personnel who are trained in the rescue procedures developed pursuant
to clause 272(2)(g) and who are fully informed of the hazards in the confined
space are readily available to assist in a rescue procedure.

Piping discharging hazardous substances

275(1) Where a worker may be required or permitted to work in a confined space
into which piping may discharge a hazardous substance, an employer shall ensure that the piping:
(a) has a blank installed that is sized for the proper pressure in the piping
before the piping enters the confined space;
(b) is equipped with two blocking valves and a bleed-off valve installed
between the blocking valves located so that any bleed off does not contaminate
the confined space; or
(c) is equipped with an approved safety device.
(2) Where piping is equipped with two blocking valves and a bleed-off valve
pursuant to clause (1)(b) or an approved safety device pursuant to clause (1)(c), an employer shall ensure that:
(a) the valves in the flow lines are locked out in the “closed” position and the
bleed-off valve is locked out in the “open” position;
(b) the valves are tagged to indicate that the valves must not be activated
until the tags have been removed by a worker designated by the employer for
that purpose; and
(c) the worker designated pursuant to clause (b):
(i) monitors the valves to ensure that they are not activated while a
worker is in the confined space; and
(ii) records on the tag mentioned in clause (b) the date and time of each
monitoring and signs the tag each time the worker monitors the valves.

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